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Citarum River Basin and Water Resources Challenges . Roundtable for ASEAN Chief Justices on Environment Dr. Thomas Panella Principal Water Resource Specialist Asian Development Bank 7 December 2011 Jakarta, Indonesia . CITARUM AT GLANCE.

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Presentation Transcript
slide1

Citarum River Basin and Water Resources Challenges

Roundtable for ASEAN Chief Justices on Environment

Dr. Thomas Panella

Principal Water Resource Specialist

Asian Development Bank

7 December 2011

Jakarta, Indonesia

slide2

CITARUM AT GLANCE

  • The biggest and the longest river in West Java Province
  • Catchment Area:
  • 6,614 Km2
  • River basin management area:13,000 Km2
  • Average rainfall:
  • 2,300 mm/year
  • Average flow:
  • 5.7 billon/m3/year
  • Citarum covers : 9 districts
  • (1)Kab. Bandung,(2)Kab.Bandung Barat, (3)Kab.Cianjur (4)Kab.Purwakarta, (5)Kab.Karawang, (6)Kab.Bekasi, (7)Kab.Subang , (8)Kab.Indramayu, and
  • (9)Kab.Sumedang
  • and 3 cities:
  • (1)Kota Bekasi, (2)Kota Bandung,
  • and (3)Kota Cimahi
slide3

CITARUM AT GLANCE

  • Population along the river over 10 million
  • (50% Urbanand growing rapidly)
  • Total population in the basin:
  • 15,303,758 (50% Urban) (Data BPS 2009)
  • Total Population in West Java
  • 41,483,729 (Gov. West Java Statistic)
  • Supplies water for 80% of Jakarta citizens(16 m3/s)
  • Irrigated area:+300,000Ha
  • Reservoirs:
  • Saguling 982million m3
  • Cirata 2,165 million m3
  • Jatiluhur 3,000 million m3
  • Electricity output:1,400 Mwatt

Photo Doc: Cita-Citarum

slide4

Specific Challenges

Population Growth and Urbanization

Watershed Degradation, Erosion & Sedimentation

Flooding and Water-Related Disasters

Excessive Groundwater Exploitation

Water Pollution

(industrial, domestic, organic and solid waste)

Coastal Degradation

Water Allocation, infrastructure and climate change

Photo Doc: Cita-Citarum

slide5

Watershed Degradation, Erosion and Sedimentation

Photo Doc: Cita-Citarum

  • Solutions include:
  • Improved spatial planning, zoning regulation and enforcement
  • Conservation, land rehabilitation and reforestation
  • Sustainable farming practices and provision of alternative sources of livelihoods

Wayang Mount

Photo Doc: Cita-Citarum

slide7

Severe and Recurrent Flooding

Flood in DayeuhkolotKab. Bandung

(Pikiran Rakyat, Friday, 19 Feb 2010)

slide10

Excessive Groundwater Exploitation

  • Subsidence is severe and basin wide:
    • From 1988 more than 3-4 meter subsidence in some places
    • Severe impact on river hydraulics (and flooding)
    • Irreversible aquifer damage
  • Solutions include:
  • Improved groundwater regulation , licensing and enforcement
  • Ground water pricing
  • Groundwater recharge
  • Increase surface water supply especially for industry
slide11

INDUSTRIAL AND DOMESTIC POLLUTION

  • Solutions Include:
  • Improved regulation, licensing and enforcement of water quality standards
  • Improved monitoring
  • Industrial and domestic waste water treatment plants
  • Provision of sanitation facilities
  • Low cost water treatment technology
  • 1,500 industries in Bandung and surrounding area:
  • 280 ton of chemical waste dump into Citarumeveryday
  • Lack of sanitation and waste water treatment facilities
  • Water quality monitoring in the late 1990s shows that annual average of BoD concentrations as high as 300 mg/liter.

Solution Include:

Law enforcementIndustrial and domestic waste water treatment plantsProvision of sanitation facilities

Low cost water treatment technology

Photo Doc: Cita-Citarum

slide12

ORGANIC WASTE

190 Tons of organic

waste from farming

dump into the river everyday

(8,000 cows produce 24 kg of waste each)

  • Solutions include:
  • Organic fertilizer production to supply downstream farms
  • Biogas generation
  • Improved waste management

Photo Doc: Cita-Citarum

slide13

SOLID WASTE

The annual uncollected garbage that invariably ends up accumulating in the drainage system and rivers amounts 500,000 m3/year

  • Solutions Include:
  • Improved solid waste management regulation , zoning and enforcement
  • Development of solid waste facilities and collection services
  • Recycle, Reuse, Reduce (3R) facilities
  • Behavioral changes

Photo Doc: Cita-Citarum

slide17

Photo by: Adhi Wicaksono/Doc Cita-Citarum

Ciwalengke Village, Majalaya, 2011

slide18

COASTAL DEGRADATION

  • Coastal abrasion
  • Biodiversity degradation
  • Increased flooding
  • Solutions include:
  • Mangrove rehabilitation and improved coastal ecosystems
  • Flood control
  • Coastal protection through dykes and coastal infrastructure
slide19

WATER USAGE

Utilized

7,5 billion m3/year = 57,9%

(Citarum ± 6 billion m3/year

And other rivers ± 1.5 billion m3/year

Potential for utilization

± 5,45 billion m3/year

= 42,1%

Urban water (local need) = 0,3%

Industriy= 2,0%

Drinking water

For Jakarta = 6,0%

Others = 5,0%

Irrigation= 86,7%

slide20

THREE CASCADES RESERVOIR OPERATIONS

  • Saguling and Cirata dams operated by Indonesia power and Juanda dam operated by PJTII
  • Greater coordination required
  • Updating of the operation procedures for flood and drought
slide21

Jatiluhur reservoir, Purwakarta District, 2010

Photo by: Diella Dachlan/Doc Cita-Citarum

Walahar Weir, Karawang District, 2010

Klari Weir, Karawang District, 2011

Photo by: Ng Swan Ti/Doc Cita-Citarum

slide23

THANK YOU

Photo Doc: Cita-Citarum