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Sharif University of Technology Civil Engineering Department Tehran-Iran. Dam Safety An Approach to Prevent Dam Incidents. Dam failure results in a catastrophic break followed by a flood wave often with considerable loss of life or property.

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sharif university of technology civil engineering department tehran iran

Sharif University of TechnologyCivil Engineering DepartmentTehran-Iran

Dam Safety

An Approach to Prevent

Dam Incidents

slide2

Dam failure results in a catastrophic break followed by a flood wave often with considerable loss of life or property

Safety during Design, Construction, Operation, Maintenance, and Surveillance of dams

Past incidents of unacceptable performance can help us in understanding of method of detection and expand our knowledge on behavior of dams and reservoir and this simulates further improvements in design, maintenance and surveillance of dams

slide3

Main causes of Dam FailureFailure of Concrete Dams

  • Lack of shear strength and discontinuity in foundation
  • Excessive uplift in the foundation (inadequate or non-existent drainage)
  • Lack of dam stability
  • Excessive or differential deformation of the foundation
  • Piping and erosion in the foundation caused by high permeability
  • Flaw in design
  • Lack of supervision during construction
  • No monitoring or warning system (systems were out of order)

Cont. next page…

slide4

Main causes of Dam FailureFailure of Concrete Dams (cont. )

  • Human error during site investigation and design and construction and operation
      • Inadequate foundation investigation
      • Incomplete data on available material
      • Poor design
      • Negligible construction supervision
      • Incomplete first impoundment
      • Incorrect operation of flood gates
      • Insufficient monitoring and data analysis
      • Lack of preventive measures or repair work
slide5

Main Causes of Dam FailureEmbankment Dam Failure

  • Overtopping during flood discharge because of inadequate spillway capacity or non-functioning flood gate
  • Internal erosion along the dam-foundation interface or along embankment with adjoining or embeded appurtunent structures or concentrated piping in the embankment itself because of inadequate or non-existent filter zones
  • Nonhomogeneity in the foundation or dam (leading to foundation failure or erosion )
  • Large settlement in the foundation
  • Crack following the settlement, with resulting piping effect
  • liquefaction
slide6

Failure Prevention

  • Failure could have been prevented if some of these points had been observed
  • Failure is a complex process
    • Begins with some abnormality in behaviour (not detected)
    • Consequent deteriorations (not observed)
    • Further damage or disaster

Inspection and Monitoring of dams as well as data analysis and interpretation has a critical role in the field of dam safety

slide7

Dam Safety Guidelines

  • Intended to offer a comprehensive review:
    • Dam -design -operation -construction

–maintenance -surveillance

  • Recommendations rather than binding regulations
  • Guidelines are not standards
  • Details dealt with as necessary
slide8

Dam Safety Procedure

(adapted for Iran)

Dam Safety Procedure

General Plan

Owner

Monitoring

Emergency Action Plan (EAP)

Consultant Companies

Periodic Dam Safety Review

Dam Retrofitting

monitoring instrumentation and surveillance
External and internal examination of dams during their life time

Long term surveillance program

Ensure dam’s owner of their safe operation

Monitoring

Measure Displacement

Settlement

Strain

Piezometric pressure

Seepage

Uplift

Water level

Alarm System

MONITORING Instrumentation and Surveillance

Compilation of Results,

Interpretation,

Recommendation,

To take appropriate action

slide10

MONITORING Instrumentation

  • To characterize dam site and dam structure condition
  • To verify Design
  • To asses safety
  • To asses performance