IRIS IDENTIFICATION TECHNOLOGY By: Michelle LaMar, Terrence Richardson, and Connor Burnham
Work Cited • http://www.aoptix.com/biometrics/applications.html • http://anupamvit.tripod.com/sitebuildercontent/sitebuilderfiles/iris_biometrics.pdf • http://www.globalsecurity.org/security/systems/biometrics-eye_scan.htm • http://www.sans.org/reading_room/whitepapers/authentication/iris-recognition-technology-improved-authentication_132 • http://www.explainthatstuff.com/how-iris-scans-work.html • http://www.nationaldefensemagazine.org/archive/2009/January/Pages/IrisScanTechnologyYettoTakeOff.aspx?PF=1 • http://www.engadget.com/2007/02/08/sarnoff-wants-to-scan-your-iris-without-your-knowledge/ • http://homelandsecuritynewswire.com/us-buys-iris-scanners-prisons-prevent-mistaken-release-inmates • http://www.security.globalsources.com/gsol/I/Iris-recognition/a/9000000098207.htm • http://www.biometrics-system.com/iris-recognition.htm • http://www.findbiometrics.com/iris-recognition/#IRIS • http://www.eye-controls.com/technology
Problem Space • Identity is always a problem when it comes to security, whether it is for computer access, Air ports, high security building access, or border control. • Companies with valuable data on their networks usually use a method that involves employees having a username and password to access secure information. User name and passwords can easily be intercepted by an outside source. If this were to happen it could give the source all of that employees access privileges and this can be detrimental to a company in today’s competitive environment. • If planned well, acquiring another individuals Identity could be done somewhat easily. Places such as military check points, government facilities and Airports are all areas that need to be secured well; while making sure the right people are being allowed into the facility or gate.
Problem Space • Border control: Many foreign criminals commit crimes on US soil, then leave the country and change their identity very easily. After laying low for a few weeks or months, these same criminals can come back across the border as a “new person” • The need for improved airport security has become apparent in recent decades. The falsification of identification documents has always been a consistent trend. • The databases that law enforcement agencies use are outdated and could use a “fool proof” system such as Iris Identification.
Why The Iris? • The iris has many features that can be used to distinguish one iris from another. One of the primary visible characteristic is the trabecular meshwork, a tissue which gives the appearance of dividing the iris in a radial fashion that is permanently formed by the eighth month of gestation. • During the development stage of the iris there is no genetic influences. Which means that every human beings Iris is unique. Not even Identical twins have the same iris. • In the iris, there are over 400 distinctive characteristics that can be used to identify an individual. roughly 260 of those are actually captured or used in an iris identification application. Because of these unique characteristics, the iris has nearly six times more distinct features that you can identify than other biometrics like fingerprint. • The fact that the iris is protected behind the eyelid, cornea and aqueous humour means that, unlike fingerprints, the likelihood of damage and/or abrasion is minimal.
The Iris Continued • The iris is also not effected by aging which means it remains in a stable form from about the age one until death.
Iris Recognition Process • "The point of biometrics identification is to test for highly distinctive biological characteristics that are provably unique to a single person.“ - John Daugman of Cambridge University • There are 3 Main steps that come with Iris Recognition technology: • Capturing the Image • Defining the location of the iris and optimizing the iris • Storing and comparing the image • Capturing the Image: • The image of the iris can be captured using a standard camera using both visible and infrared light and may be either a manual or automated procedure • With the manual procedure, the user must adjust the camera to get the iris in focus. This procedure involves proper user training to be sucessful. • With the advanced technology today, manual labor is rarely needed as the cameras can capture images of an individuals iris from up to about 3 meters or 9 feet away.
Iris Recognition Process • Defining the location and optimizing the iris: • After the eye is located, the system identifies the image that has the best focus and clearness of the iris. • The image is then analyzed to identify the outer boundary of the iris where it meets the white sclera of the eye, the pupillary boundary and the center of the pupil. This results in the precise location of the circular iris pattern. • The iris recognition system then identifies the areas of the iris image that are suitable for feature extraction and analysis. This involves removing areas that are covered by the eyelids, any deep shadows and reflective areas.
Iris Recognition Process • Storing and Comparing the Image: • Once the image is captured, an algorithm locates the outer and inner edges of the iris and proceeds to analyze it. The algorithm uses 2-D Gabor wavelets to filter and map the iris into a 2048 bit iris code. The Gabor wavelets assign values drawn from spatial frequency of selected areas of the iris and then generates an iris code according to radial and angular variables. • It has been estimated that the false accept rate is 1 in 1.2 million for this type of iris code.
Potential Issues • Privacy concerns are the biggest feared issue for the future of Iris recognition. Many human rights activists have come forward saying that they believe iris scanning will soon further the ability of our government to track citizens beyond their will. • The newer Iris scanning devices will be used to track citizens at a lengthy distance without their knowledge or cooperation. • Activists argue that the money invested for iris scan research would be better used toward research that improves health and welfare. • Damage of the eye could be an issue as well- (infrared rays applied too often) or eye disease affecting the scan process
Acceptance • Although it is not a popular mainstream product YET, The iris recognition method has been heavily accepted by companies who have tried it out. • The Korea Biometrics Association stated that in 2008 Fingerprinting was the favorite biometric and accounted for 91.4% of the market. But by 2010 Iris scanning will have the biggest increase going from 1.3% to 31.4% per year from 2008 to 2010. • The US government has allocated funds to prisons to acquire iris scanning technologies to avoid inmates from impersonating other inmates to gain early release, as well as employee and visitor identity . • The U.S. Justice Department has given a $500,000 grant to the National Sheriff’s Association, which is distributing out the money through $10,000 grants to about 45 agencies across the United States that will create a national database that better identifies, registers, and tracks inmates. • Companies said most of the grant went to purchasing the equipment, and a small portion went towards training.
Innovation • This Technology is a disruptive innovation. As technology gets better so do these different types of iris scanners. The more companies and agencies want this technology improvements will continue to be made to it, including non-HLS companies. • Iris Identification will soon replace, or at least work with, finger printing. • In the last few years many steps have been made, making this technology more and more usable. A lot of the time iris recognition technology has been held back by the necessity to position a subject in front of the iris scanner and line up the eye properly for identification. • Today however there are scanners that scan while the subject is still in motion.
Testing • In 2006, the County Sheriffs Department in Maine, invested in iris scanners to scan and record the vitals of children in the area. Over 500 children in neighborhoods and schools were scanned. Every iris scanned was scanned successfully. Information was sent to the nationwide Children's Identification and Location Database (or CHILD) project, intended to aid in locating and identifying missing children. • A small test done in the UK tested patients with certain eye diseases like corneal oedema, iridotomies (laser puncture of iris) and conjunctivitis. It resulted that the scanner still scanned the iris clearly with these diseases. • Patients suffering from acute inflammation of the iris, however, could cause many recognition systems to fail. • Amsterdam’s Schiphol Airport, there are fast-track lanes at passport control which use iris scanning to identify flight crew and some frequent travelers.– Very effective it had 0 false reports.
Advantages • Iris patterns are extremely random (difficult to forge or imitate another individual) • Iris is protected against damage by the Cornea. • Consistent Iris patterns throughout life • No direct contact between subject and Camera technology • No difficulty in enrolling people that wear glasses or contact lenses. • Extremely convenient • The precision of the scanning technology is a major benefit. With error rates being very low, resulting in a highly reliable system for authentication. • Image analysis and encoding speed is extremely fast (aprox. 1 second) • Very good alternative for passwords.
Disadvantages • The iris is fairly small (its diameter is about 1cm) • Requires some cooperation from the subject.( must make sure alignment and positioning is correct) • Most are used for small target population. • Iris can be partially covered by eyelids, eye lashes • If scanned enough, Infrared rays that are used to scan the iris can potentially damage the eye, or cause optical disease in the long run • Illumination and reflection surfaces can effect capture. • Iris is located behind a curved, wet, reflecting surface • Frustrated subjects can slow down the process • Implementation costs are high. • Normal day-to-day problems such as system failures, power failures, network problems, and software problems can all contribute to rendering a the technology unusable. • Costs, especially more advanced versions (needed: computer, adjustable cameras, and training)
Iris on the Move Iris on the Move • Sarnoff Corporation’s Iris on the move consists of fast, convenient, and secure biometric products for high-throughput identity verification. • IOM technologies are capable of capturing an iris image at a distance while the subject is in motion, which most Iris recognition technologies can’t do. • 2010 Best New Product Award and Best Biometrics and Identity Solution at the Security Industry Association New Product Showcase. • There are 3 different technologies in the IOM series • Portal system • Drive-up system • Compact system
Portal System • This system combines the security of iris scanning, recognition & detection with a fast convenient high-throughput solution for access control. It has a processing speed of 30 people per minute, making it ideal for high-traffic locations such as airports, security checkpoints and other applications that require uncompromising identity verification for a large number of people.
Portal System • Requires no user training • Motion isn’t an issue • Eye safe • Stand off distance = 3m or 9 feet • Identification speed is less than 1 second • Throughput = 30 people per minute • Works with subjects of varying heights • Captures images through eyeglasses, contact lenses and most sunglasses • Identifies users in database or watch lists • Very good for high traffic buildings like Government facilities, airports, Nuclear plant sites, and Correctional facilities.
Drive-Up System • This system uses Pan-Tilt-Zoom technology to capture a driver’s iris recognition while eliminating the need for the individual to exit the vehicle. It is an accurate, reliable and convenient method of access control for secure areas.
Drive Up system • Requires no user training • Eliminates the need to exit vehicle • Works with varying heights • Captures image through eye glasses, contacts and most sunglasses • Identifies users in data base and watch lists • Standoff distance = 1-2m (aprox. 6 feet) • Iris Identification speed = less than 1 second • Throughput = 6 vehicles per minute • Very good for military Check points, border crossing, and sensitive Government locations
Compact System • This system miniaturizes the iris recognition technologies to widen the scope of possible applications. Its small form factor makes it ideal for areas where space is an issue while its advanced capabilities enable it to capture the iris images of up to 12 people per minute.
Compact System • Requires no User training • Limited subject interaction • Customization for individual scenarios ( Mount onto wall, rack, tripod or gooseneck) • Standoff Distance = 1 m • Iris identification speed = less than 1 second • Light weight • Throughput = 12 people per minute • Good for Iris database enrollment, Airport check in counters, Government facilities, and Secure room access,
Future Vision • The future for this technology is to hopefully eliminate hard copy Identification all together. • This technology can serve as a living passport or password that one need not remember but can always present. • Provide better protection at all borders either land or waterways. • Identifying criminals without their knowledge. • ATM’s world wide
Vaccine Dispensing • if we are ever attacked with a nuclear weapon, vaccine dispensing response depends on time for effective results. Iris scanning could speed this very stressful process up to a high level. It could also retrieve information about individuals explaining what kind of medical issues they have, so they know what kind of medication they need or can ingest.
Will Iris Technology make America Safer? • I believe it can definitely make America safer. • Two of the best examples are airports and border security. • Pilots and flight staff could cause a threat if unidentified subjects are allowed on board posing as another person. Iris scanning would identify the problem immediately. • At the borders, Iris technology could identify criminals coming across to the United States.
Recommendation • Iris Identification systems should be implemented into all major airports around the world. • This is a technology that Homeland Security can benefit from on a daily basis. • As soon as the technology is leveraged, it will prove itself to be a great investment. • Law Enforcement as well as airports will be able to scan thousands of people in a single day and potentially stop terrorists and other threats from harming our homeland. • Civilian use of this technology in the future will create more secure homes and other personal properties.