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Intrusion Detection in Wireless Sensor Networks. Group Meeting Spring 2005 Presented by Edith Ngai. Outline. Wireless sensor networks (WSN) Security in WSN Background on intrusion detection Intrusion detection in WSN Types of attacks Intrusion detection components Required technologies

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Intrusion detection in wireless sensor networks

Intrusion Detection in Wireless Sensor Networks

Group Meeting

Spring 2005

Presented by Edith Ngai


  • Wireless sensor networks (WSN)

  • Security in WSN

  • Background on intrusion detection

  • Intrusion detection in WSN

    • Types of attacks

    • Intrusion detection components

    • Required technologies

    • Future directions

  • Conclusion

Technology trend
Technology trend

  • Small integrated devices

    • Smaller, cheaper, more powerful

  • PDAs, mobile phones

  • Many opportunities, and research areas

    • Power management

    • Distributed algorithms

Wireless sensor networks
Wireless sensor networks

  • Wireless sensor node

    • power supply

    • sensors

    • embedded processor

    • wireless link

  • Many, cheap sensors

    • wireless  easy to install

    • intelligent  collaboration

    • low-power  long lifetime

Possible applications
Possible applications

  • Military

    • battlefield surveillance, biological attack detection, targeting

  • Ecological

    • fire detection, flood detection, agricultural uses

  • Health related

    • human physiological data monitoring

  • Miscellaneous

    • car theft detection, inventory control, home applications

Required technologies
Required technologies

  • Efficient data routing

    • ad-hoc network

    • one or more ‘datasinks’

  • In-network data processing

    • large amounts of raw data

    • limited power and bandwidth

  • Node localization

Security in wsn
Security in WSN

  • Main security threats in WSN are:

    • Radio links are insecure – eavesdropping / injecting faulty information is possible

    • Sensor nodes are not temper resistant – if it is compromised the attacker obtains all security information

  • Protecting confidentiality, integrity, and availability of the communications and computations

Intrusion detection in wireless sensor networks

Why security is different?

  • Sensor Node Constraint

    • Battery

    • CPU power

    • Memory

  • Networking Constraints and Features

    • Wireless

    • Ad hoc

    • Unattended

Network defense
Network defense


- Response

- Terminate Connections

- Block IP Addresses

- Containment

- Recovery

- Reconstitute


- Encryption

- Firewalls

- Authentication

- Biometrics


- Intrusions

- Attacks

- Misuse of Resources

- Data Correlation

- Data Visualization

- Malicious Behaviors

- Network Status/ Topology

What is intrusion detection
What is intrusion detection?

  • Intrusion detection is the process of discovering, analyzing, and reportingunauthorized or damaging network or computer activities

  • Intrusion detection discovers violations of confidentiality, integrity, and availability of information and resources

What is intrusion detection1
What is intrusion detection?

  • Intrusion detection demands:

    • As much information as the computing resources can possibly collect and store

    • Experienced personnel who can interpret network traffic and computer processes

    • Constant improvement of technologies and processes to match pace of Internet innovation

How useful is intrusion detection
How useful is intrusion detection?

  • Provide digital forensic data to support post-compromise law enforcement actions

  • Identify host and network misconfigurations

  • Improve management and customer understanding of the Internet's inherent hostility

  • Learn how hosts and networks operate at the operating system and protocol levels

Intrusion detection models
Intrusion detection models

  • All computer activity and network traffic falls in one of three categories:

    • Normal

    • Abnormal but not malicious

    • Malicious

  • Properly classifying these events are the single most difficult problem -- even more difficult than evidence collection

Intrusion detection models1
Intrusion detection models

  • Two primary intrusion detection models

    • Network-based intrusion detection monitors network traffic for signs of misuse

    • Host-based intrusion detection monitors computer processes for signs of misuse

  • So-called "hybrid" systems may do both

    • A hybrid IDS on a host may examine network traffic to or from the host, as well as processes on that host

Ids paradigms
IDS paradigms

  • Anomaly Detection - the AI approach

  • Misuse Detection - simple and easy

  • Burglar Alarms - policy based detection

  • Honey Pots - lure the hackers in

  • Hybrids - a bit of this and that

Anomaly detection
Anomaly detection

  • Goals:

    • Analyze the network or system and infer what is normal

    • Apply statistical or heuristic measures to subsequent events and determine if they match the model/statistic of “normal”

    • If events are outside of a probability window of “normal” then generate an alert

Misuse detection
Misuse detection

  • Goals:

    • Know what constitutes an attack

    • Detect it

    • A database of known attack signatures should be maintained

Network model
Network model

  • BSj: base station at location (Xj, Yj)

  • Si: sensor node at location (xi, yi)

  • R: transmission range of the base station

  • r: transmission range of the sensor node

  • k-coverage: a node covers by k BSs


  • Coverage of a base station

  • Number of coverage from base stations

  • p sends data to q successfully (in 1-hop)

  • p sends data to q successfully via k hops

  • p fails in sending data from p to q

Types of intrusions
Types of intrusions

  • Sinkhole SH(q), HelloFlood HF(q)

    • A region of nodes will forward packets destined for a BS through an adversary

  • Wormhole WH(q)

    • An adversary tunnels messages received in one part of the network over a low latency link and replays them in a different part

Types of intrusions1
Types of intrusions

  • Missing Data MD(p)

    • Missing data from p to BSi

  • Wrong Data WD(p)

    • Inconsistent data

  • Interference

    • Sensor p cannot send packet to its neighboring nodes

Intrusion detection components
Intrusion detection components

  • Neighbor monitoring

    • Watchdog

  • Data fusion

    • Local – neighboring nodes

    • Global – overlapping areas

  • Topology discovery

  • Route tracing

  • History

Intrusion classification
Intrusion classification

Attack Types: I - Sinkhole, Hello Flood II – Wormhole III – Missing Data

IV – Wrong Data V - Interference

Required technologies1
Required technologies

  • Collection of the audit data

    • Localization

    • Data fusion

    • Routing

  • Analysis on the audited data

    • Identify the intrusion characteristics

    • Detect the intrusions

    • Locate the intrusions

  • Intrusion reaction

Future direction
Future direction

  • Study how to collect the audit data effectively

  • Complete the intrusion detection architecture

  • Investigate the methods to analyze the audit data for intrusion detection

  • Explore how to locate and react to the intrusions

  • Formulate and evaluate our intrusion detection solution


  • We discussed the characteristics of WSN and its security issues

  • We studied traditional intrusion detection technologies

  • We introduced the problem of intrusion detection in WSN

  • We proposed an intrusion detection architecture and analyzed various kinds of intrusions in WSN

  • We showed our future direction