Lesson XIII Vocative Case Ablative of Place From Which
Let’s Review! • PERFECT TENSE: past action completed • Drop the –i from the 3rd principal part to find the verb stem • Add the perfect endings!
Finding the Perfect Stem Find the third principal part of the verb. doceo docere docui doctus The perfect stem is the third principal part – i. docui - i = docu-
We taught We have taught We did teach I taughtI have taughtI did teach First Person docu imus docu i You taught You have taught You did teach You taughtYou have taughtYou did teach Second Person docu istis docu isti They taught They have taught They did teach erunt He taughtHe has taughtHe did teach Third Person docu it docu Perfect Active
Test on Wednesday! • 2 grades: • Perfect Tense Verb endings…see your practice worksheet from last week! • English derivatives from Lessons 13-16…see your sheet from last Friday with the *’ed words to study!
Vocative Case (Lesson XIII) • In Latin, the vocative case is used to address people directly or to get their attention. • Charles, come here! • Emily, you’re the best sister anyone could have! • Leave me alone, creep!
Vocative Case • The name “vocative” case comes from the Latin word “voco”: “to call.” • The vocative is set apart by commas in English. • It’s often used with the imperative (command) verbs.
How To Make a Vocative • Most Latin words use the nominative ending for their vocative form, too. Yay! No new endings! • Portaaquam, mea filia. • Carry the water, my daughter. • But… there are exceptions!
How To Make a Vocative • Words that end in –us make their singular vocative by changing the –us to –e. • Free the captives, Marcus! • Liberacaptivos, Marce! • Hurry, friend! • Festina, amice!
How To Make a Vocative • Words that end in –ius make their singular vocative by changing the –ius to –i. • Free the captives, Lucius! • Liberacaptivos, Luci! • Hurry, son! (filius) • Festina, fili!
What To Take Away From the Lesson! • Vocatives are used to address someone directly. • The only words that use special endings are –us and –ius singular words. • -us = -e -ius = -i • All other words just use their nominative endings.
Making Vocatives! • Quintus • agricolae • Cornelia • Tullius • Anna • Marcus • amicus • servus • Quinte • agricolae • Cornelia • Tulli • Anna • Marce • amice • serve