slide1 n.
Download
Skip this Video
Loading SlideShow in 5 Seconds..
Can Physical Activity Attenuate Aging-related Weight Loss in Older People? The Yale Health and Aging Study, 1982-1994 PowerPoint Presentation
Download Presentation
Can Physical Activity Attenuate Aging-related Weight Loss in Older People? The Yale Health and Aging Study, 1982-1994

Loading in 2 Seconds...

play fullscreen
1 / 21

Can Physical Activity Attenuate Aging-related Weight Loss in Older People? The Yale Health and Aging Study, 1982-1994 - PowerPoint PPT Presentation


  • 167 Views
  • Uploaded on

Can Physical Activity Attenuate Aging-related Weight Loss in Older People? The Yale Health and Aging Study, 1982-1994. James Dziura, Carlos Mendes de Leon, Stanislav Kasl, and Loretta DiPietro. Background. Body weight increases through middle-age, but starts to decline during older age;

loader
I am the owner, or an agent authorized to act on behalf of the owner, of the copyrighted work described.
capcha
Download Presentation

PowerPoint Slideshow about 'Can Physical Activity Attenuate Aging-related Weight Loss in Older People? The Yale Health and Aging Study, 1982-1994' - stanislaw


An Image/Link below is provided (as is) to download presentation

Download Policy: Content on the Website is provided to you AS IS for your information and personal use and may not be sold / licensed / shared on other websites without getting consent from its author.While downloading, if for some reason you are not able to download a presentation, the publisher may have deleted the file from their server.


- - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - E N D - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - -
Presentation Transcript
slide1

Can Physical Activity Attenuate Aging-related Weight Loss in Older People?The Yale Health and Aging Study, 1982-1994

James Dziura, Carlos Mendes de Leon, Stanislav Kasl, and Loretta DiPietro

background
Background
  • Body weight increases through middle-age, but starts to decline during older age;
  • This decline occurs primarily as a result of loss in lean tissue (sarcopenea);
  • Sarcopenea is a primary condition for loss of physical and metabolic reserve in aging;
  • Disuse has been identified as a significant factor in lean tissue loss, since changes in body composition are mirrored by a gradual decline in physical activity in older age.
problem
Problem
  • Longitudinal studies of physical activity and weight change have not been performed in older populations, among whom weight loss is a more important problem than weight gain and among whom the relation between physical activity and weight loss is influenced heavily by chronic disease and loss of mobility.
purpose
Purpose

The purpose of this analysis was to determine, longitudinally, the trajectory of weight loss with age and the relation between physical activity and body weight change in a cohort of people aged 65 years and older.

hypotheses
Hypotheses

We hypothesized that: 1) body weight would decline over the follow-up; and 2) physical activity would play an important role in minimizing weight loss over time.

methods
Methods

Subjects

Older residents (≥65 y) of New Haven, CT enrolled in the Yale Health and Aging Project – one of the funded sites of the Established Populations for the Epidemiologic Study of the Elderly (EPESE).

methods1
Methods
  • Subjects
  • The New Haven EPESE cohort was a cluster sample stratified by three different housing types for older people: 1) public housing; 2) private housing; and 3) housing in the general community.
  • Of the 3,337 eligible residents contacted, 2,812 (82%) enrolled in the study at baseline in 1982.
exclusion hierarchy
Exclusion Hierarchy

Interested subjects (N=2,812)

methods2
Methods
  • Body weight
  • Current body weight was self-reported at each yearly interview from 1982 to 1990 and then again in 1994.
  • Each subject could have as many as 10 weight assessments over the 12-year follow-up.
methods3
Methods
  • Physical Activity
  • Respondents were asked to report the frequency of participation within the past month for four general types of activities: 1) walking; 2) gardening/housework; 3) physical exercise; and 4) active sports or swimming.
  • Responses of never (coded as 0), sometimes (coded as 1) or often (coded as 2) were summed over the four activities for each respondent to create a total activity score (TAS) that ranged from 0 to 8, with higher scores indicating higher levels of baseline activity.
covariables at baseline
Covariables at Baseline
  • Age (date of initial interview - reported birth date);
  • Height (inches);
  • Race (white/non-white);
  • Education (number of years);
  • Chronic conditions (reported number of physician-diagnoses of heart disease, cancer, stroke, diabetes, liver disease, or hypertension);
  • Smoking (smoker/non-smoker);
  • Functional Ability Score (ADLs, IADLs);
  • Mobility Score (reported ability (yes/no) to climb stairs, do house work, and walk ½ mile)
statistical analysis
Statistical Analysis
  • Univariate statistics (Χ±SD; %);
  • Multivariable random effects modeling (repeated body weight assessments over a maximum of 10 times (1982-1994) regressed on physical activity, while adjusting for covariables). This modeling accounts for between-subject variation in baseline body weight (intercept) and change in body weight with aging (slope; as indicated by follow-up time variable).
slide13

Table 1. Cross-sectional distribution of mean (±sd) body weight at each year of follow-up among those who survived and those who did not survive to the next interview year.

Survived to next interview year

Did not survive to next interview year

slide14
Table 2. – Baseline characteristics of the study sample by survival status over the follow-up, 1982-1994.

* p<0.001 based on t-test for independent samples; # p<0.01 based on chi-square test.

slide15
Figure 2. - Predicted weight loss (95% confidence bands) over the first 8 years based on random effects modeling*: 1982-1990.

Body weight (lbs)

Survivors

Non-survivors

YEAR

* Model adjusted for age, sex, housing strata, and interaction of each with time.

table 3 simple effects of physical activity on weight loss 1982 1994
Table 3. - Simple effects of physical activity on weight loss: 1982-1994.

Non-survivors (n=1,395)

Combined (N=2,300)

Survivors (n=905)

Based on random effects modeling adjusted for time and time2. Regression estimates for TAS*Time interaction represent the change in the rate (per year) of weight loss per unit change in the study variable.

slide17
Table 4. Parameter Estimates* from the Random Effects Model Determining the Effects of Physical Activity on Aging-Related Weight Change.

Survivors (n=905)

Non-survivors (n=1,395)

Combined (N=2,300)

*also adjusted for sex, race, education, height, functional disability score, and housing.

slide18

Fig. 3 - Parameter Estimates (95% CI)* from the Fully-Adjusted Random Effects Model Determining the Effects of Physical Activity Score on Attenuation of Weight Loss by Survival and Chronic Disease Status.

Attenuation of weight loss (lbs/year)

0.15 (0.00, 0.30)

0.06 (-0.12, 0.25)

0.09 (0.02, 0.15)

0.09 (0.00, 0.17)

-0.02 (-0.11, 0.07)

Combined (N=2300)

Survivors with no chronic disease (n=350)

Survivors with chronic disease (n=555)

Non-survivors with no chronic disease (n=422)

Non-survivors with chronic disease (n=973)

summary
Summary
  • The oldest people started off the follow-up period weighing less than their younger counterparts;
  • The magnitude of the inverse relation between age and body weight was greater among nonsurvivors compared with survivors;
summary1
Summary
  • We observed a curvilinear rate of weight loss with aging that varied by survival status and by chronic disease.
  • The ability of physical activity to attenuate aging-related weight loss was observed only among those with chronic disease, and was most pronounced among those with chronic disease who did not survive the follow-up period.
conclusion
Conclusion

If we were to consider weight loss a somatic indicator of frailty in older people, it appears as though even among older people afflicted with chronic conditions that contribute to frailty, an active lifestyle can attenuate the rate of failure, thereby maintaining some quality of health and function in older age.