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  1. How to Do Legal Research in China By Prof. Li Xiaohui and Prof. Wang WenhuaBeijing Foreign Studies Univ. Nov. 2006

  2. 一、法律渊源 (Sources of Law in China) • 二、怎样寻找法律文献资源 (How to find the legal resources) • 三、如何确认法律渊源的效力 How to check the validity of a law

  3. 一、法律渊源(Sources of Law in China) 1. 首要渊源或正式渊源(Primary sources of law ) • 制定法Code law (statutes) • 法律解释Legal interpretation • 条约和国际惯例Internationaltreaties and customs 2.次要渊源或非正式渊源(Secondary sources of law) • 判例 Cases • 学理 Doctrine • 习惯法 Customary law • 法律原则 Legal principles

  4. 1.首要渊源或正式渊源(Primary sources of law) • 制定法Code law (statute law) 宪法 Constitution——NPC 法律 Law(basic laws and other laws)—NPC、SCNPC Basic laws: law of civil procedure, law of criminal procedure, general rules of civil law, criminal law …… Other laws: securities law, trademark law, labor law, grassland law ……

  5. 行政法规Administrative regulations—State Council 国务院关于股份有限公司境内上市外资股的规定 (Regulations of the State Council on Foreign Capital Stocks Listed in China by Joint-stock Companies---1995-12-25 国务院关于进一步整顿和规范期货市场的通知 (Circular of the State Council Concerning the Further Consolidation and Standardization of Futures Markets---1998-8-1

  6. 部门规章ministerial rules—28 ministries and commissions • 汽车金融公司管理办法(Administrative Rules Governing the Auto Financing Company--2003-10-3) • 中华人民共和国中外合作办学条例(Regulations of the People’s Republic of China on Chinese Foreign Cooperation in Running Schools –2003-3-1) • 中华人民共和国商标法实施条例 (Implementing Regulations of the Trademark Law of the People's Republic of China--2002-8-3)

  7. 地方性法规 Local regulations—Legislatures of provinces and relatively large cities 上海市村民委员会选举办法 (Procedures of Shanghai Municipality on the Election of the Villagers' Committee---1999-6-1 ) 地方性规章local rules—Governments of provinces and relatively large cities 上海市营业性危险货物道路运输管理办法(Procedures of Shanghai Municipality on the Administration of Road Transportation of Dangerous Goods of a Business Nature---2003-2-8)

  8. 民族自治地方的自治条例和单行条例Autonomous regulations-Legislatures of autonomous • 经济特区法规和规章 Special economic zone regulations & rules—Legislatures and governments of SEZs • 军事法规和规章 Military regulations and rules-Central Military Commission & its departments • 特别行政区立法 Special administration region laws &regulations -SAR legislature &government

  9. 法律解释 Legal interpretation 立法解释 Legislative Interpretation - NPC / SCNPA 全国人民代表大会常务委员会关于《中华人民共和国国籍法》在澳门特别行政区实施的几个问题的解释 (Interpretations of the Standing Committee of the National People’s Congress Concerning Questions on the Implementation of the Nationality Law of the People’s Republic of China in the Macao Special Administrative Region---1998-12-29) 全国人民代表大会常务委员会关于补选出缺的香港特别行政区第九届全国人民代表大会代表的决定 (Decision of the Standing Committee of the National People’s Congress on by-Election to Fill the Vacancies of Delegates to the 9th National People’s Congress from the Hong Kong Special Administrative Region---1998-10-26)

  10. 行政解释administrative interpretation—Administrative departments that have the right to make laws 司法解释judicial interpretation — SPC/SPP 关于适用《中华人民共和国合同法》若干问题的解释(一)(The Supreme People's Court's Interpretations of Certain Issues Concerning the Application of The Contract Law---1999-12-1)

  11. 条约和国际惯例internationaltreaties and customs • 中华人民共和国政府与美利坚合众国政府关于在中国实施美国志愿者项目的协议(AGREEMENT BETWEEN THE GOVERNMENT OF THE UNITED STATES OF AMERICA AND THE GOVERNMENT OF THE PEOPLE'S REPUBLIC OF CHINA CONCERNING THE UNITED STATES VOLUNTEER PROGRAM IN CHINA---1998-6-29) • 装运前检验协定(Agreement on Pre-shipment Inspection---1994-4-15)

  12. 2.次要渊源或非正式渊源(Secondary Authority) • 判例 Cases organized and published by the Supreme court and the Supreme People’s Procuratorate • 学理 Doctrine in academic articles and books • 习惯法 Customary law • 法律原则 Legal principles

  13. 二、怎样寻找法律文献资源(How to find legal resources) • 1.Code law 书籍Through books or journals • 年鉴 year book(There are more than 20 yearbooks about law in China today, such as《中国法律年鉴》Law yearbook of China-English version,《人民法院年鉴》Yearbook of the People’s Courts)

  14. Example:《中国法律年鉴》 Law Yearbook of China (2003—2004)reflects the situation of 2003.Its Special Record includes work reports from SCNPC /government/SPC/SPP, the White books and other important documents published by state organs. It includes all laws enacted by SPC and SCSPC in 2002—2003,all important administrative regulations and rules,the catalog of ministerial rules, local regulations and rules,international treaties which China entered into. The part of Development of Legal Studies reflects the fruits of some legal branches studies. You can find some statistical data and an index of law books and journals in it too.

  15. 法规汇编 legislative series There are all kinds of legislative series in bookstores ,such as Chinese legislative series (2004),Labor Law and regulations…… • 手册/指南handbook /guide book Similar to legislative series • Some guide book for judges to deal with special cases may be useful, such as Guide book for Civil Litigation民事诉讼办案手册. • 公报 gazette • 中华人民共和国最高人民检察院公报》 Communique of the Supreme People’s Procuratorate of the People’s Republic of China • 中华人民共和国最高人民法院公报》Gazette of the Supreme People’s Court of the People’s Republic of China • 中华人民共和国全国人民代表大会常委会公报》 Gazette of the SNPC of the PRC

  16. 电子信息手段 Resources Online and CD-Rom • 光盘数据库 CD-Rom database 中国法律法规数据库 (Data Base of Chinese Law and Regulation) • 网络数据库database on website 中国法律资源库Legal Database 中国政府法制信息网China Legislative information network system 北大法律信息网Peking University law information (link on BFSU library website) 中国咨询行 China information Bank trial period on BFSU library website)

  17. 中国人大网 • You can get newest and entire information of legislation in China. Some documents on the website are about legislative history. And through the section on “Laws and Regulations of China,” you can get more documents from E-mail.

  18. 2. Cases 判例 • 中华人民共和国最高人民检察院公报》 Communique of the Supreme People’s Procuratorate of the People’s republic of China • 中华人民共和国最高人民法院公报》Gazette of the Supreme People’s Court of the People’s Republic of China • 中华人民共和国全国人民代表大会常委会公报》 Gazette of the SNPC of the PRC • 或者适用法律数据库 or use legal databases

  19. 3. 学理 Doctrine Through monographs专著 by famous professors or books by reputable publishing houses, such as法律出版社 Law Press, 中国政法大学出版社the Press of China Politics and law University. 《中国图书分类法细目》(the Classification of books of China) D 政治、法律(D0-D9; D8 外交、国际关系D9 法律 )

  20. Academic Journals法学杂志 目前中国共有中文法律类核心期刊21种 About 21 core law journals in China today • 中外法学 Peking University Law Review • 法学评论 Law Review • 法学家 Jurists Review 法学研究Chinese Journal of Law

  21. 期刊查阅方法: • 全国报刊索引》哲学社会科学版The Index of National newspapers and journals Philosophy and Social Science Version-a monthly edited and published by Shanghai Library ) • 报刊资料索引》(the Yearbook of Index of newspapers and journals published in Renmin University Copy Resources) • 人大复印资料》(Renmin University Copy Resources) • 中国期刊网 • on BFSU Library website)

  22. 四、怎样展开法律研究(How to check the validity of laws • 1.新法优于旧法 new laws have precedence over old ones • 2.特别法优于普通法particular laws have precedence over general ones • 3.上位法优于下位法According to the hierarchy of law • 4. 正式渊源优于非正式渊源 Primary sources of law have precedence over secondary authorities