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Economic and Political Change of the United Mexican States. Danielle Eldarini Jake kalik. Colonialism 1519-1821. From 1519-1821 Spain controlled the area that is now Mexico, placing their subjects in an elaborate social status hierarchy. It left several enduring influences such as:
-Cultural Heterogeneity, which means that even though status differences between natives and Spanish were clearly drawn, the populations mixed. Today, about 60% of all Mexicans are mestizo, or mixed Amerindian and Spanish blood.
-Spanish catholic priests settled far and wide as they converted the population to Christianity. They set up missions that became population centers and despite status differences, they developed attachments to the people they led.
-Economic dependency: the territory controlled by Spain was so vast that the Spanish never realized the extent of Mexico’s natural resources
-Reorganizing the government became a difficult task when the Spanish took their hierarchy with them when they left. This resulted in instability and illegitimacy within the Mexican government.
-The instability of the government invited military control.
-The United States chose to challenge Mexican land claims. The US declared war in 1841, and by 1855 Mexico had lost half it’s territory to the them.
-Liberals and Conservatives continued their struggle over issues of political and economic order. The constitution of 1857 incorporated many of the goals of the liberals like a democratic government, bill of rights, and limitation on the power of the Catholic Church. This did NOT guarantee stability in the government.
-Mexican Independence Day celebration: http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=wWAY4OiztzE
-Stability in the Mexican government.
-Authoritarianism. There was only a sharing of power among a political elite.
-Foreign investment and economic growth swelled. Cientificos, or Diaz’s science-based technocrats, encouraged entrepreneurship and foreign investment resulting in a growth of business and industry.
-Emiliano Zapata and Pancho Villa arose to popularity.-The new Constitution of 1917 set up a structure for a democratic government.-Conflicts with the Catholic Church arose.-PRI FOUNDED, and with influence from Lazaro Cardenas, its leaders set up sexinos- the leaders of the PRI would take six-year rotations as president and limited to only one term. The sexino is still in place today.
-The presidency became the primary institution of the political system, with sweeping powers exercised during a constitutionally limited six year term with no possibility of reelection.
-The military was removed from overt political competition and transformed into one of several institutional pillars of the regime.
-An elaborate network of government-sponsored peasant and labor organizations provided a mass base for the official political party and performed a variety of political and economic control functions using a multilayered system of patron-clientelism.