Introduction to the ELA/Literacy Shifts of the Common Core State Standards
The Background of the Common Core Initiated by the National Governors Association (NGA) and Council of Chief State School Officers (CCSSO) with the following design principles: • Result in College and Career Readiness • Based on solid research and practice evidence • Fewer, Higher and Clearer
The CCSS Requires Three Shifts in ELA/Literacy Regular practice with complex text and its academic language Reading, writing and speaking grounded in evidence from text, both literary and informational Building knowledge through content-rich nonfiction
Shift #1: Regular practice with complex test and its academic language 4
Regular Practice With Complex Text and its Academic Language: Why? • Gap between complexity of college and high school texts is huge. • What students can read, in terms of complexity is the greatest predictor of success in college (ACT study). • Too many students are reading at too low a level.(<50% of graduates can read sufficiently complex texts). • Standards include a staircase of increasing text complexity from elementary through high school. • Standards also focus on building general academic vocabulary so critical to comprehension.
What are the Features of Complex Text? • Subtle and/or frequent transitions • Multiple and/or subtle themes and purposes • Density of information • Unfamiliar settings, topics or events • Lack of repetition, overlap or similarity in words and sentences • Complex sentences • Uncommon vocabulary • Lack of words, sentences or paragraphs that review or pull things together for the student • Longer paragraphs • Any text structure which is less narrative and/or mixes structures
Scaffolding Complex Text The standards require that students read appropriately complex text at each grade level – independently (Standard 10). However there are many ways to scaffold student learning as they meet the standard: • Multiple readings • Read Aloud • Chunking text (a little at a time) Provide support while reading, rather than before.
Considerations for ELL/SPED Instruction must include both “macro-scaffolding,” in which teachers attend to the integration of language and content within and across lessons and units, as well as “microscaffolding” during the “moment-to-moment work of teaching.”1 In order to develop the ability to read complex texts and engage in academic conversations, ELs and SPED population need access to such texts and conversations, along with support in engaging with them. With support, ELs can build such repertoires and engage productively in the kinds of language and literacy practices called for by the Standards for both ELA and other disciplines 1 Bunch, George C., Amanda Kibler, and Susan Pimentel. "Realizing Opportunities for English Learners in the Common Core English Language Arts and Disciplinary Literacy Standards." Understanding Language, Stanford University. Web.
Close Analytic Reading • Requires prompting students with questions to unpack unique complexity of any text so students learn to read complex text independently and proficiently. • Not teacher "think aloud“. • Virtually every standard is activated during the course of every close analytic reading exemplar through the use of text dependent questions. • Text dependent questions require text-based answers – evidence.
Here is Your Chance to Practice The Pledge of Allegiance I pledge allegiance to the flag of the United States of America, and to the republic for which it stands, one nation, under God, indivisible, with liberty and justice for all. Take this apart, phrase by phrase. What does this mean to you?
What Words Might Be Necessary to Discuss? Pledge Allegiance Flag (as a symbol) Republic Nation Indivisible Liberty Justice
Shift #2:Reading, Writing,and Speaking Grounded in Evidence From Text, Both Literary and Informational 12
Reading, Writing and Speaking Grounded in Evidence from Text: Why? • Most college and workplace writing requires evidence. • Ability to cite evidence differentiates strong from weak student performance on NAEP • Evidence is a major emphasis of the ELA Standards: Reading Standard 1, Writing Standard 9, Speaking and Listening standards 2, 3, and 4, all focus on the gathering, evaluating and presenting of evidence from text. • Being able to locate and deploy evidence are hallmarks of strong readers and writers
What makes Casey’s experiences at bat humorous? What can you infer from King’sletter about the letter that he received? “The Gettysburg Address” mentions the year 1776. According to Lincoln’s speech, why is this year significant to the events described in the speech? Content Shift #2 Text-Dependent Questions Not Text-Dependent Text-Dependent In “Casey at the Bat,” Casey strikes out. Describe a time when you failed at something. In “Letter from a Birmingham Jail,” Dr. King discusses nonviolent protest. Discuss, in writing, a time when you wanted to fight against something that you felt was unfair. In “The Gettysburg Address” Lincoln says the nation is dedicated to the proposition that all men are created equal. Why is equality an important value to promote?
Sample Informational Text Assessment Question: Pre-Common Core Standards High school students read an excerpt of James D. Watson’s The Double Helix and respond to the following: James Watson used time away from his laboratory and a set of models similar to preschool toys to help him solve the puzzle of DNA. In an essay, discuss how play and relaxation help promote clear thinking and problem solving.
Sample Literary Question: Pre-Common Core Standards From The Adventures of Tom Sawyer Have the students identify the different methods of removing warts that Tom and Huckleberry talk about. Discuss the charms that they say and the items (i.e. dead cats) they use. Ask students to devise their own charm to remove warts. Students could develop a method that would fit in the time of Tom Sawyer and a method that would incorporate items and words from current time. Boys played with dead cats and frogs, during Tom’s time. Are there cultural ideas or artifacts from the current time that could be used in the charm?
Sample Text Dependent Question: Common Core Standards From The Adventures of Tom SawyerWhy does Tom hesitate to allow Ben to paint the fence? How does Twain construct his sentences to reflect that hesitation? What effect do Tom’s hesitations have on Ben?
Content Shift #3 Content-Rich Nonfiction • 50/50 balance K-5 • 70/30 in grades 9-12 • Studentslearning to read should exercise their ability to comprehend complex text through read-aloud texts. • In grades 2+, students begin reading more complex texts, consolidating the foundational skills with reading comprehension. • Reading aloud texts that are well-above grade level should be done throughout K-5 and beyond.
Building Knowledge Through Content-Rich Nonfiction: Why? • Students are required to read very little informational text in elementary and middle school. • Non-fiction makes up the vast majority of required reading in college/workplace. • Informational text is harder for students to comprehend than narrative text. • Supports students learning how to read different types of informational text.
Content Shift #3 Sequencing Texts to Build Knowledge • Not random reading • Literacy in social studies/history, science, technical subjects, and the arts is embedded • Resources Page 33 in the CCSS for ELA/Literacy – The Human Body example
Evaluating Websites by Using Text-Dependent Questions Notice: The following four slides have been inserted in this slideshow by Suzie Martin for the purpose of providing an example of using text-dependent questions when evaluating a website. These slides were not authorized by achievethecore.org.
"Map of Recent Weather-Related Disasters in West Virginia." Environment California. N.p., n.d. Web. 03 Feb. 2014. • Parts of the Citation Tell a Story • Quotation marks tell you this is part of a larger work, such as a chapter in a book or a webpage that is part of a site. • "Map of Recent Weather-Related Disasters in West Virginia.“ • Italicized or underlined print tell you the name of the larger work, such as a website or a book. • Environment California. • N.p. means that the publisher, or person who paid for the production of this site, cannot be identified. • N.d. means that no date of publication can be found. • Web means that this information came from a webpage. • The last part of the citation tells when I checked for information. • 03 Feb. 2014. Note: This slide was inserted into the presentation by Suzie Martin for purposes of illustrating critical reading; it is not authorized by achievethecore.org .
We Need More Information, So Let’s Ask Some Questions. What questions should we ask about the webpage title? "Map of Recent Weather-Related Disasters in West Virginia.” • What is considered “recent?” • How bad does something have to be to be considered a “disaster?” What questions should we ask about the site title? Environment California • Does the title suggest any kind of special interest? • Why is a group in California interested in storms in West Virginia? Note: This slide was inserted into the presentation by Suzie Martin for purposes of illustrating critical reading; it is not authorized by achievethecore.org .
We Need More Information, So Let’s Ask Some Questions. Should we be concerned that the citation maker could not find a publisher or a date of publication? N.p., N.d. Is the fact that this information comes from a website important? Web Is it important to know when this information was accessed or looked at? 03 Feb. 2014 Note: This slide was inserted into the presentation by Suzie Martin for purposes of illustrating critical reading; it is not authorized by achievethecore.org .
Before We Start Using This Site’s Information,Let’s Look More Closely. Note: This slide was inserted into the presentation by Suzie Martin for purposes of illustrating critical reading; it is not authorized by achievethecore.org .