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Religion. Analyze the impact of social institutions on individuals, groups, and organizations within society and how these institutions transmit the values of society including familial, religious, educational, economic and political. Religion. Religion.

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    1. Religion Analyze the impact of social institutions on individuals, groups, and organizations within society and how these institutions transmit the values of society including familial, religious, educational, economic and political

    2. Religion

    3. Religion • According to Emile Durkhiem, all societies have attempted to satisfy the need to give meaning to human existence and provide people with motivation • A sharp distinction between the sacred and the profane

    4. Religion • Sacred: • Anything that is considered to be part of the supernatural world and inspires awe, respect, and reverence • Profane: • Anything considered to be part of the ordinary world (commonplace and familiar)

    5. Religion • Social creation • Focuses on the supernatural world • Based on faith rather than science • Sociologists are not concerned with truth or falseness • Focus is on the social characteristics of religion and the consequences that religion has for society

    6. Religion • May be defined as a system of roles and norms that is organized around the sacred realm that binds people together in social groups

    7. The Functions of Religion • Social Cohesion: • The strengthening of bonds among people • For individuals who participate in religion, creates a sense of belonging

    8. The Functions of Religion • Social Control: • Encourages conformity to the norms of society • Norms and values are supported by religious doctrines as well (not just laws) • Confession and communion serve as emotional releases for individuals while contributing to the unity of the group

    9. The Functions of Religion • Emotional Support: • Helps people endure disappointment and suffering by providing a comfort in believing that harsh circumstances have a special purpose • Motivates people to survive

    10. The Nature of Religion • Rituals: • An established pattern of behavior through which a group of believers experience the sacred • Baptisms (dedications), weddings and funerals • Rituals generally include the sacred symbols of the specific religion • Clothing, herbs, crosses, books

    11. Belief Systems • Animism: • The belief that spirits actively influence human life • Animals, plants, rivers, mountains and even the wind are believed to contain spirits • Shamanism: • It is believed that spirits communicate with one person in the group • Shaman: Believed they can communicate, heal the sick, predict the future, or see events happening far away

    12. Belief Systems • Totemism: • Belief in kinship between humans and animals or natural objects • Animal or object (totem) considered sacred and is thought to represent a family or clan and their ancestors

    13. Belief Systems • Theism: • The belief in god or gods • 2 Types of Theism: • Monotheism: • Belief in one god (Christianity, Judaism, Islam) • Polytheism: • Belief in a number of gods (Hinduism)

    14. Belief Systems • Ethicalism: • Based on the idea that moral principles have a sacred quality • Truth, honor, tolerance serve as a guide • Ethical religions found mostly in Asia

    15. Organizational Structures • Ecclesia: • Type of religious organization in which most people in the society are members by virtue of their birth • Denomination: • Well established religious organization in which a substantial number of the population are members

    16. Organizational Structures • Sect: • Small religious organization that typically has split off from a denomination because of differences concerning beliefs • Cult: • New Religion whose beliefs and practices differ markedly from those of the society’s major religions

    17. Religious Participation • A majority of Americans express religious preferences, only about 34% of people attend religious services on a regular basis

    18. Religious Participation • Regular attendance at church or synagogue is a poor indicator of religious involvement • Religiosity: • The depth of people’s feelings and how they translate these feelings into behavior • Secular: • Religion is losing influence in everyday life in the United States