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Nazi Rise to Power. 1929-1932. Something for everyone. Working class Farmers – new policies aimed at countryside and small towns Middle classes – self employed, small businessmen, craftsmen, shopkeepers Army officers Upper classes. Methods of publicity. Spoken word Rallies & marches

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something for everyone
Something for everyone
  • Working class
  • Farmers – new policies aimed at countryside and small towns
  • Middle classes – self employed, small businessmen, craftsmen, shopkeepers
  • Army officers
  • Upper classes
methods of publicity
Methods of publicity
  • Spoken word
  • Rallies & marches
  • Visual symbols all over
  • Nazi newspapers – disctributed free
  • Cinema advertising – 1929 Hitler impressed Alfred Hugenberg (leader of Nationalist Party DNVP). Two agreed to cooperate in a campaign against Young Plan. Financial support
  • Banners & uniforms
  • Visiting cities (Hitler visited 21 towns in 6 days) during a campaign in 1932)
  • October 1929 American Stock Exchange collapsed
  • Pay back, less trade, factories closed, unemployment grew
  • Republic seemed unable to solve the problem
  • More and more turned to extremist parties who seemed to have a simple solution for Germany’s troubles
  • Result: By 1930 Nazi won 108 seats in Election
democracy starts to crack
Democracy starts to crack
  • Spring 1930
  • President Hindenburg appoints Heinrich Bruning as Chancellor
  • Bruning rules Germany without majority in Reichstag
  • Possible because Article 48 allows President (or a person of his choice) to rule without needing Reichstag support during times of emergency
  • Democratic parties could not agree on how to deal with problems – most people lost faith & discontent grew
hindenburg and hitler
Hindenburg and Hitler
  • Hindenburg a war hero, twice elected as President
  • By 1932 old man, not always clear in his thinking
  • Didn’t like Hitler “an Austrian ex-corporal”, feared threat to democracy

“A cabinet led by you would develop into a dictatorship”

nazi support grows
Nazi support grows
  • In 1928 less than 1m voted for Nazi Party
  • By 1930, nearly 6.5m
  • July 1932, over 13.5m
  • Largest party in Reichstag
  • Others saw this popularity and hoped to use them for own purposes

- Nationalists thought they could share power, industrialists thought they could defend them against Communism, army officers thought Nazi’s would give themarmy back => gave Nazi’s money

legally violently propaganda money
Legally, violently, propaganda & money
  • Nazi propaganda was very effective. It blamed the communists and Jews for Germany’s problems and presented Hitler as the strong leader Germany needed.
  • Nazi stormtroopers were used to attack the meetings of opposition parties during election campaigns. Violence and the murder of opponents were deliberate tactics.
  • The Nazis had control of the police in Prussia, Germany’s largest state. Opponents were arrested on false charges and the police ignored the violence of the SA.
  • Hitler had the support of big business; they thought he would prevent Germany becoming communist. They provided the money Hitler needed to fight elections.
  • Other politicians were concerned about his growing support, others thought they could control him if they put him in a position of power
  • In 1932 Franz von Papen replaced Bruning as Chancellor
  • Hitler refused vice Chancellorship – no intention of being linked to a crumbling system with no power to change it.
  • General Kurt von Schleicher replaced von Papen in 1932 (enemy of von Papen)
  • Von Schleicher tried to limit activities of Nazi’s
  • In retaliation, Nazi’s allied with von Papen’s party to defeat von Schleicher in Reichstag
  • Von Papen then persuaded Hindenburg to appoint Hitler as Chancellor of Weimar Republic on 30 January 1933
  • Care needed though – few Nazi’s in coalition government & Hindenburg had power to get rid at any time