fluency with information technology n.
Download
Skip this Video
Loading SlideShow in 5 Seconds..
A Clip Show of Computing History 50 minutes of nerds at their best PowerPoint Presentation
Download Presentation
A Clip Show of Computing History 50 minutes of nerds at their best

Loading in 2 Seconds...

play fullscreen
1 / 38

A Clip Show of Computing History 50 minutes of nerds at their best - PowerPoint PPT Presentation


  • 109 Views
  • Uploaded on

INFO100 and CSE100. Fluency with Information Technology. A Clip Show of Computing History 50 minutes of nerds at their best. Katherine Deibel. Why History?. Computing and IT are two of the youngest fields in STEM Many of our founders are still alive or recently passed on

loader
I am the owner, or an agent authorized to act on behalf of the owner, of the copyrighted work described.
capcha
Download Presentation

PowerPoint Slideshow about 'A Clip Show of Computing History 50 minutes of nerds at their best' - stacy


An Image/Link below is provided (as is) to download presentation

Download Policy: Content on the Website is provided to you AS IS for your information and personal use and may not be sold / licensed / shared on other websites without getting consent from its author.While downloading, if for some reason you are not able to download a presentation, the publisher may have deleted the file from their server.


- - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - E N D - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - -
Presentation Transcript
fluency with information technology

INFO100 and CSE100

Fluency with Information Technology

A Clip Show of Computing History50 minutes of nerds at their best

Katherine Deibel

Katherine Deibel, Fluency in Information Technology

why history
Why History?
  • Computing and IT are two of the youngest fields in STEM
  • Many of our founders are still alive or recently passed on
    • I've personally conversed with at least three Turing award winners (basically the Nobel prize in computing)
  • Still, the history goes back farther than you may think

Katherine Deibel, Fluency in Information Technology

what is a computer
What is a computer?
  • Several definitions for first computers
    • Computation tool: abacus
    • Mechanical: astrolabe and Antikytheramechanism
    • Programmable: Babbage Analytical Engine
    • First binary computer: Zuse Z3
    • First electronic general purpose: ENIAC
    • First commercial computer: Ferranti Mark 1
    • First single chip microprocessor: Intel 4004

Katherine Deibel, Fluency in Information Technology

abacus
Abacus
  • One of our earliest computation tools
    • Predecessor was the stick/tablet with crossed out counting marks
  • Arrangement of strings and stones allowed for development of fast counting methods (algorithms)
    • Also introduced roundoff error

Katherine Deibel, Fluency in Information Technology

clip abacus speed
Clip: Abacus Speed
  • Source:Documentary: The Story of Onewith Terry Jones (Monty Python fame)
  • Setting:A mathematician challenges an modern abacus user
  • Play info: (start at 46:00) http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=umyhZu6gXmQ

Katherine Deibel, Fluency in Information Technology

antikythera mechanism
Antikythera mechanism
  • Early 1st century BCE Greek mechanical computer
  • Calculates position of Sun, Moon, and several planets on different dates
  • Such mechanisms not seen again until the 14th century

Katherine Deibel, Fluency in Information Technology

computer hardware history
Computer Hardware History
  • Been around a lot longer than one normally would guess
    • Historical movement from gears to vacuum tubes to transistors to integrated circuits
  • But what about the software

Katherine Deibel, Fluency in Information Technology

ada lovelace
Ada Lovelace
  • Augusta Ada King,
    • Countess of Lovelace
    • Daughter of Lord Byron
  • Translated and extended Menabrea’s article on Babbage’s Analytical Engine
  • Predicted computers could be used for music and graphics
  • Wrote the first algorithm— how to compute Bernoulli numbers
  • Developed notions of looping and subroutines

Katherine Deibel, Fluency in Information Technology

garbage in garbage out
Garbage In, Garbage Out

The Analytical Engine has no pretensions whatever to originate anything. It can do whatever we know how to order it to perform. It can follow analysis; but it has no power of anticipating any analytical relations or truths.

— Ada Lovelace, Note G

Katherine Deibel, Fluency in Information Technology

on her genius and insight
On her genius and insight

If you are as fastidious about the acts of your friendship as you are about those of your pen, I much fear I shall equally lose your friendship and your Notes. I am very reluctant to return your admirable & philosophic 'Note A.' Pray do not alter it…

All this was impossible for you to know by intuition and the more I read your notes the more surprised I am at them and regret not having earlier explored so rich a vein of the noblest metal.

— Charles Babbage

Katherine Deibel, Fluency in Information Technology

science and victorian ladies
Science and Victorian Ladies
  • Some journals accepted and supported science papers from women authors.
  • Periodical like the Edinburgh Review and Ladies Diary also provided opportunities for publishing amateur scholarly works.

Katherine Deibel, Fluency in Information Technology

human computers
Human Computers
  • Manual calculation of differential equations for generating tables to be used in the field
    • Supported through use of mechanical calculators
    • A few specialized in the use of single-purpose hardware (e.g., differential analyzer)
  • Women more prominent as computers
    • Alternative to a career teaching mathematics
    • Large pool of potential employees (both college and high school graduates)
    • Cheaper than hiring men

Katherine Deibel, Fluency in Information Technology

the women of eniac
The Women of ENIAC
  • Six “computers” hired to be the first programmers for the ENIAC project (1945)
  • Women comprised a large percentage of later programmers for ENIAC, including
    • Homé McAllister, Willa Wyatt Sigmund, and Marie Bierstein

Katherine Deibel, Fluency in Information Technology

working on the eniac
Working on the ENIAC
  • Learned the system through its blueprints and conversations with its designers
  • Worked in pairs on subprojects:
    • Calculating and testing test trajectories:
    • Marlyn Meltzer and Ruth Teitelbaum
    • Developing and streamlining the programs:
    • Frances Spence and Kathleen Antonelli
    • Coordinating the Master Programmer unit:
    • Jean Bartik and Betty Holberton
  • Only group to program ENIAC at the machine level

Katherine Deibel, Fluency in Information Technology

after eniac
After ENIAC
  • Ruth Teitelbaum
    • Stayed with ENIAC project the longest
    • Trained second generation of ENIAC programmers
  • Jean Bartik
    • Conversion of ENIAC to a stored-program computer
    • Worked on BINAC and UNIVAC I
  • Kathleen Antonelli
    • Married John Mauchly (1948)
    • Software design for the BINAC and UNIVAC I
  • Betty Holberton
    • Suggest grey as the color for UNIVAC I
    • Developed C-10 mnemonic instruction set for BINAC

Katherine Deibel, Fluency in Information Technology

dustbin of history
Dustbin of history?
  • For 50 years, their involvement was mostly forgotten and ignored:
    • Hardware more the focus than the software
    • Names misspelled in official Army history
    • Some programmers married ENIAC engineers
  • Programmers originally not invited to 50th anniversary of ENIAC
  • All six programmers inducted into the Women in Technology International Hall of Fame (1997)

Katherine Deibel, Fluency in Information Technology

why the focus on women
Why the focus on women?
  • Yes, there were plenty of men who also worked in computing
    • We will cover them more in other chapters
  • This is a clip show of interesting points in computing and IT history

Katherine Deibel, Fluency in Information Technology

an amazing photo
An Amazing Photo

Philadelphia Inquirer, "Your Neighbors" article, 8/13/1957

Katherine Deibel, Fluency in Information Technology

grace hopper 1 of 3
Grace Hopper (1 of 3)
  • Education
    • Vasser: B.S. in Mathematics and Physics
    • Yale: M.S. and Ph.D. in Mathematics
  • Naval Career
    • Joined Naval Reserves (1943)
    • Assigned to work with Howard Aiken
  • Harvard
    • First person to write a program for the Mark I (arctangent calculations)
    • Member of the Mark II and III development teams

Katherine Deibel, Fluency in Information Technology

the infamous bug
The Infamous Bug
  • While working on the Mark II, Hopper discovered a moth stuck in a relay.
  • Originated the term “debugging”

Katherine Deibel, Fluency in Information Technology

grace hopper 2 of 3
Grace Hopper (2 of 3)
  • UNIVAC
    • Invented concept of compiler: ARITH-MATIC, MATH-MATIC and FLOW-MATIC
    • COBOL was partially an extensionof FLOW-MATIC
  • Standards
    • Advocated and pioneered development of standards for testing computer systems and languages.

Katherine Deibel, Fluency in Information Technology

grace hopper 3 of 3
Grace Hopper (3 of 3)
  • Naval Career
    • Retired three times
    • 1983 Special Presidential promotion to Rear Admiral
    • Defense Distinguished Service Medal recipient (1986)
  • Digital Equipment Corporation (DEC)
    • Senior Consultant and Goodwill Ambassador (1986 – 1992)

Katherine Deibel, Fluency in Information Technology

nanoseconds
Nanoseconds
  • To demonstrate the cost of computing time, Hopper would

hand out pieces of wire.

  • Distance electrons travel:
    • 1 nanosecond ≈ 12 inches
    • 1 microsecond ≈ 1000 feet
    • 1 millisecond ≈ 189 miles
    • 1 second ≈ 189,000 miles

Katherine Deibel, Fluency in Information Technology

clip hopper and nanosecond
Clip: Hopper and Nanosecond
  • Grace Hopper explains the nanosecondURL: http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=9eyFDBPk4Yw
  • She also appeared on Letterman!URL:http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=RZ0g5_NgRao

Katherine Deibel, Fluency in Information Technology

let s jump ahead
Let's Jump Ahead
  • Until the late 1960s, the general view of computers was the mainframe
  • The idea of a personal computer on one's desktop was an alien idea
  • Then came the Mother of All Demos

Katherine Deibel, Fluency in Information Technology

douglas engelbart
Douglas Engelbart
  • Early pioneer of Human-Computer Interaction
    • Developed computer mouse
    • Set foundation for Hypertext
    • Established use of GUIs
  • Main credo: Use computers to connect and support human thought and capability

Katherine Deibel, Fluency in Information Technology

mother of all demos
Mother of All Demos
  • Stanford Research InstituteDecember 9, 1968
  • Live demonstration of a GUI workstation that shows
    • Computer mouse
    • Video conferencing
    • File sharing
    • Word processing

Katherine Deibel, Fluency in Information Technology

clip the demo
Clip: The Demo
  • URL:http://sloan.stanford.edu/MouseSite/1968Demo.html
  • Clips:2. Introduces workstation3. Word processor12. Mouse and keyboard

Katherine Deibel, Fluency in Information Technology

our final clip
Our Final Clip
  • I expect to hear some groans…

Katherine Deibel, Fluency in Information Technology

the office assistant
The Office Assistant
  • Animated help tool in Microsoft Office 97-2003
  • Despised by the public

Katherine Deibel, Fluency in Information Technology

microsoft word feature glut
Microsoft Word Feature Glut
  • Word had many many features
    • Letter wizard
    • Cross-referencing
    • Etc.
  • Difficult for users to discover and learn the features that could best help them

Katherine Deibel, Fluency in Information Technology

original idea lumiere
Original Idea: Lumiere
  • Bayesian model (AI technique)
  • Agent tracks user’s goals
  • Offer advice when user appears stuck
  • Taper off advice as user stops showing interest in new features
    • Prevent frustrating the user
    • Accepts that every user may not want to become a complete power user of Word

Katherine Deibel, Fluency in Information Technology

it worked but
It worked but…
  • Lumiere’s software took up a large percentage of the Office memory and storage space requirements
  • Caused Office to run a bit slowly

Katherine Deibel, Fluency in Information Technology

marketing s lobotomy
Marketing’s Lobotomy
  • Lumiere’s intelligence was stripped
    • They kept the task detection software
    • Removed the code for tracking the learner’s progress and avoiding annoyance
  • Result:
    • Unhappy customers
    • Clippy removed from Office 2007

Katherine Deibel, Fluency in Information Technology

impact on intelligent agents
Impact on Intelligent Agents
  • Negative opinion of intelligent helper agents like Clippy
    • Furthered by automated hotlines with poor speech recognition
  • Lumiere as it was would run fine on computers today
    • It won’t be implemented into future Office versions
    • Consumer response would be negative

Katherine Deibel, Fluency in Information Technology

perhaps the tide is turning
Perhaps the Tide is Turning
  • Clippy was over 4+ years ago
  • New smart agents are around
  • Apple iPhone’s Siri
    • Very popular
    • Not animated but is treated as a person
  • Siri-type clones likely to become more plentiful in the near future

Katherine Deibel, Fluency in Information Technology

summary
Summary
  • I hope you enjoyed a few clips from the history of IT and computing
  • We'll touch on many more throughout the rest of the term
    • Starvation and theoretical physicists
    • Laziness and integrated circuits

Katherine Deibel, Fluency in Information Technology