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Interpersonal Persuasion . Chapter 8. Characteristics of I nterpersonal C ommunication . Dynamic—participants send the receive signals continually and simultaneously; the situation is not static

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characteristics of i nterpersonal c ommunication
Characteristics of Interpersonal Communication
  • Dynamic—participants send the receive signals continually and simultaneously; the situation is not static
  • Interactive—participants influence each other; they are interdependent. Each person is constantly aware of the other and assumes the roles of both sender and receiver, which involves constant adaptation and adjustment.
  • Proactive—involve the total person. Beliefs, attitudes, values, social background, and previous transactions all influence the nature of the interaction.
characteristics of i nterpersonal c ommunication cont
Characteristics of Interpersonal Communication (cont’)
  • Contextual—environmental and situational factors influence the interaction.
  • Intense—content of the interactions are most often personal, intimate, and revealing, thus producing the risks of rejection, withdrawal, exposure, and even weakness.
definition
Definition
  • Definition of interpersonal persuasion: the behavior that takes place when two or a few people interact in a way that involves verbal and nonverbal behaviors, personal feedback, coherence of behaviors (relevance or fit of remarks and actions), and the purpose (on the part of at least one interactant) of changing the attitudes and/or behaviors of the others.
dimensions
Dimensions
  • Cognitive or rational dimension: language choice, attitudes, logic, and credibility
  • Relationship dimension
    • inclusion
    • Control
    • affection
variables of interpersonal persuasion
Variables of Interpersonal Persuasion
  • Verbal characteristics
  • Nonverbal characteristics
  • Power and control
  • Compliance-seeking messages
  • Conflict
  • Gender
  • Culture
  • Leadership
non verbal characteristics
Non-verbal Characteristics
  • Failure to recognize nonverbal signals.
    • Nonverbal communication takes place through gestures, facial expressions, body posture, eye contact, and use of interpersonal space.
    • Mixed messages occur when a person’s words and nonverbal signals communicate different things.
    • The growing use of communication technologies causes important nonverbal communication to be lost.
how to improve persuasion
How to Improve Persuasion
  • Active listening.
    • The process of taking action to help someone say exactly what he or she really means.
  • Rules for active listening:
    • Listen for message content.
    • Listen for feelings.
    • Respond to feelings.
    • Note all cues, verbal and nonverbal.
    • Paraphrase and restate.
how to improve
How to Improve…
  • Ten steps for good listening:
    • Stop talking.
    • Put the other person at ease.
    • Show that you want to listen.
    • Remove any potential distractions.
    • Empathize with the other person.
    • Don’t respond too quickly; be patient.
    • Don’t get mad; hold your temper.
    • Go easy on argument and criticism.
    • Ask questions.
    • Stop talking.
how to improve1
How to Improve
  • Feedback.
    • The process of telling others how you feel about something they did or said, or about the situation in general.
  • Constructive feedback guidelines:
    • Give it directly.
    • Make it specific.
    • Give it when the receiver is willing/able to accept it.
    • Make sure it is valid.
    • Give it in small doses.
what comes to mind when someone says you are
What comes to mind when someone says you are:
  • Assertive
  • Persuasive
  • Aggressive
  • Passive
  • Manipulative
  • Controlling
personal assessment
Personal Assessment
  • Do you already know your level of assertiveness, persuasiveness?
    • If asked to give a speech to a large group do you cringe in horror and decline the invitation?
    • When another person is hostile towards you do you automatically become defensive?
    • Do most people know you by name?
    • Do you make efforts to engage others in conversations?
    • Do you ask people questions?
persuasion v coercion
Persuasion v. Coercion

I am going to pick you up and throw you off the roof.

I am going to convince you that you want to jump off the roof.

Coercion

Persuasion

what is power
What is power?
  • Potential to influence others
  • Requires some degree of dependence or interdependence
  • Helps us:
    • Make decisions
    • Understand behavior
    • Influence behavior
sources of power
Sources of Power
  • Five sources of power
    • Legitimate
    • Reward
    • Coercive
    • Expert
    • Referent
  • Person-based vs. position-based
  • Individual differences in need for power
  • Information is power
contingencies of power
Contingencies of Power
  • How much power do I have?
  • Depends on:
    • Substitutability
    • Centrality
    • Discretion
    • Visibility
more strategies
More Strategies
  • Miller and Steinberg (1974) discuss the four important types of strategies:
    • Reward
    • Punishment
    • Catalyst
    • Mutual dependence.
conflict
Conflict
  • Not always negative
    • Functional vs. dysfunctional
  • What are some positive outcomes of conflict?
  • Negative outcomes include
    • Stress
    • Process loss
    • Turnover (team or organization)
conflict1
Conflict
  • Conflict.
    • A disagreement between people on:
      • Substantive issues regarding goals and tasks, allocation of resources, distribution of rewards, policies and procedures, and job assignments.
      • Emotional issues arising from feelings of anger, distrust, dislike, fear, and resentment, as well as personality clashes.
    • Conflict that is well managed can help promote creativity and high performance.
functional vs dysfunctional conflict
Functional vs. Dysfunctional Conflict
  • Functional conflict.
    • Moderately intense conflict.
    • Constructive and stimulates people toward greater work efforts, cooperation, and creativity.
  • Dysfunctional conflict.
    • Low-intensity and very high-intensity conflict.
    • Destructive and hurts task performance.
causes of conflict
Causes of conflict
  • Role ambiguities.
  • Resource scarcities.
  • Task interdependencies.
  • Competing objectives.
  • Structural differentiation.
  • Unresolved prior conflicts.
sources of conflict
Sources of Conflict
  • Task-based
    • Interdependence
    • Incompatible goals
  • Interpersonal
    • Values and beliefs
    • Personality
  • Source of conflict can drive resolution strategy
resolving conflict
Resolving Conflict
  • Emphasize superordinate goals
  • Reduce differentiation
  • Improve communication and understanding
  • Reduce task interdependence
  • Increase resources
  • Clarify rules and procedures
structural approaches for resolving conflicts
Structural approaches for resolving conflicts:
  • Appealing to superordinate goals.
  • Making more resources available.
  • Changing the people.
  • Altering the physical environment.
integrative devices for resolving conflicts
Integrative devices for resolving conflicts:
  • Using liaison personnel, special task forces, cross-functional teams, or a matrix organization.
  • Changing reward systems.
  • Changing policies and procedures.
  • Training in interpersonal skills.
conflict example
Conflict Example

Charlotte is a salesperson at a furniture store. Her job is to maximize sales.

Teri is the credit manager at the store. Her job is to minimize credit losses.

  • What is one potential source of conflict?
  • How could this conflict be resolved?
not just between people
Not just between people
  • Roles can be incompatible
    • Work-family conflict
  • Creates stress, reduces career satisfaction
  • How is the resolution process different?
conflict management styles
Conflict Management Styles
  • People’s conflict management styles reflect different combinations of cooperative and assertive behavior.
    • Cooperativeness is the desire to satisfy the other party’s needs and concerns.
    • Assertiveness is the desire to satisfy one’s own needs and concerns.
conflict management styles1
Conflict management styles:
  • Avoidance (withdrawal).
    • Uncooperative and unassertive.
  • Accommodation (smoothing).
    • Cooperative and assertive.
  • Competition (authoritative command).
    • Uncooperative and assertive.
  • Compromise.
    • Moderately cooperative and assertive.
  • Collaboration (problem solving).
    • Cooperative and assertive.
conflict management styles2
Conflict management styles
  • Lose-lose conflict.
    • Management by avoidance or accommodation.
  • Win-lose conflict.
    • Management by competition and compromise.
  • Win-win conflict.
    • Management by collaboration.
negociation
Negociation
  • Negotiation is the process of making joint decisions when the parties involved have different preferences.
  • All negotiation situations are susceptible to conflict and require exceptional communication and interpersonal skills.
goals and approaches
Goals and Approaches
  • Negotiation goals and approaches:
    • Substance goals.
      • Concerned with outcomes.
      • Tied to the “content” issues of negotiation.
    • Relationship goals.
      • Concerned with processes.
      • Tied to the way people work together.
    • Effective negotiations occur when …
      • Issues of substance are resolved.
      • Working relationships are maintained or improved.
criteria for effective negotiation
Criteria for effective negotiation
  • Quality.
    • Negotiating a “wise” agreement that is truly satisfactory to all sides.
  • Cost.
    • Negotiating efficiently, using minimum resources and time.
  • Harmony.
    • Negotiating in a way that fosters interpersonal relationships.
types of negotiation
Types of negotiation
  • Distributive negotiation …
    • Focuses on claims made by each party.
    • Leads to win-lose outcomes.
  • Principled (or integrative) negotiation …
    • Goal is to base the outcome on the merits of individual claims.
    • Leads to win-win outcomes.
gaining integrative agreements
Gaining integrative agreements
  • Separate the people from the problem.
  • Focus on interests, not on positions.
  • Generate many alternatives before deciding what to do.
  • Insist that results are based on some objective standard.
common negotiation pitfalls
Common negotiation pitfalls
  • Falling prey to the myth of the “fixed pie.”
  • Nonrational escalation of conflict.
  • Overconfidence and ignoring other’s needs.
  • Too much “telling” and too little “hearing.”
to avoid
To avoid…
  • Approaches to avoiding negotiation pitfalls:
    • Mediation
      • Involves a neutral third party who tries to improve communication between negotiating parties and keep them focused on relevant issues.
    • Arbitration
      • Involves a neutral third party who acts as a judge and issues a binding decision.
tips for successful employment interviewing
Keep smiling.

Be enthusiastic.

Be honest.

Make frequent eye contact.

Remain positive.

Less can be more.

Keep things conversational.

Be prepared to ask questions.

Take time to think before you respond.

Don’t ask about time off, salary, or benefits until the interviewer asks.

Avoid negative comments about former employers and colleagues.

Prepare a closing statement/argument.

Tips for SuccessfulEmployment Interviewing