Relative Clauses 4º ESO. What are relative clauses?. Son oraciones subordinadas adjetivas porque : Son parte de una oración principal Funcionan como un adjetivo . El nexo es un pronombre relativo . Supongamos la oración simple: The TALL man came yesterday Adjetivo
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What are relative clauses? • Son oracionessubordinadasadjetivasporque: • Son parte de unaoración principal • Funcionancomo un adjetivo. • El nexoes un pronombrerelativo. Supongamos la oración simple: The TALL man came yesterday Adjetivo • The man came yesterday. • The man is tall.
The TALL man came yesterday Adjetivo Aquí hay dos ideas sobre un mismoelemento: The man • The man came yesterday. • The man is tall. The man WHO is tall came yesterday Donde: 1.- El nexo de relativo WHO = THE MAN 2.- The man came yesterday es la oración principal 3.- WHO is talles la de relativo 4.- WHOes el pronombrenexo de relativo 5.- The man es el antecedente. En lugar de poner un adjetivo delante del nombre, podríamos unirlas de la siguiente manera:
La oración The man WHO is tall came yesterday es una oración poco probable porque podemos reducir la parte “WHO IS TALL” a un solo adjetivo “TALL”, con lo que simplificamos, y por lo tanto preferimos decir: The tall man came yesterday Sin embargo, si queremos unir estas dos informaciones 1.- Themancameyesterday 2.- Themanboughtthe red car. en una sola oración, no podemos usar un adjetivo que exprese una idea tan compleja como “Themanboughtthe red car”, y entonces se hace necesario utilizar la oración de relativo: ThemanWHO BOUGHT THE RED CAR cameyesterday.
Dado que las oraciones de relativo son informaciones sobre un sustantivo (ANTECEDENTE), aquéllas siempre irán inmediatamente detrás de éste, y el orden de dichas oraciones siempre será ANTECEDENTE + PRONOMBRE + ORACIÓN DE RELATIVO RELATIVO Thisis THE MAN THAT I SAW YESTERDAY
THE PROBLEM IS… Comparadas con el español, las oraciones de relativo en inglés presentan algunas diferencias: 1.- En español, siempre aparece el pronombre de relativo; en inglés, a veces no. La casa que compraste era muy cara. Thehouse--- youboughtwasveryexpensive. 2.- Cuando hay preposiciones en la oración de relativo, en español aparece delante del pronombre de relativo; en inglés, habitualmente no aparece delante del pronombre de relativo. Hay que saber cuándo ocurre esto y dónde se coloca esa preposición. El profesor con el que estabas hablando era Bob. Theteacher-------- youweretalkingtowas Bob.
I. Definingrelativesentences OMISSION OF THE RELATIVE PRONOUN Thepolicemanwasreallytall. • Twopossiblerelativesentences: • Thepolicemancameyesterday. SUBJECT Mary sawthepoliceman. OBJECT (C.Dto.) Thepolicemanwasreallytall. Thepolicemanwasreallytall. whocameyesterday (who) Mary saw
Put a suitable relative pronoun in each space • 1 The bike _________________________ I had left at the gate had disappeared. • 2 The shoes ____________________ I bought were the ones ______________________ I tried on first • 3 The bag ___________________ the robbers forgot was found full XXXX-WHICH-THAT XXXX-WHICH-THAT XXXX-WHICH-THAT XXXX-WHICH-THAT
Put a suitable relative pronoun in each space • 4 The medicine _________________the doctor gave me had no effect at all • 5 The man ________________ couldn't see the screen decided to change his seat • 6 I really liked that tea _____________you made me this morning XXXX-WHICH-THAT WHO-THAT XXXX-WHICH-THAT
Put a suitable relative pronoun in each space • 7 What was the name of the boy _____________ gave you the money? • 8 The flight __________________Joe was going to take was cancelled • 9 The person ______________ phoned didn’t leave a message. WHO-THAT XXXX-WHICH-THAT WHO-THAT
Put a suitable relative pronoun in each space • 10 The guidebook ___________________we bought explained everything. • 11 The car ____________ broke down was Peter’s. • 12 The students _______________ like English will pass the exam. XXXX-WHICH-THAT WHICH-THAT WHO-THAT
I. Definingrelativesentences • Join these sentences using who - which – that - XXXX • 0 We chose the hotel. It seemed to be the nicest • 1 She spoke to the man. He was standing next to her. • 2 I read the letters. They came in the morning post • 3 He likes the other people. They work in his office • 4 She's that singer. She was on television last night • 5 Next week there is a festival. It happens in the village every summer • 6 I paid the bills. They came yesterday
I. Definingrelativesentences Join these sentences using who, which only when necessary. 0 She chose the books. She wanted to buy them. 1 We ate the sandwiches. Jack made them. She chose the books she wanted to buy. We ate the sandwiches Jack made.
I. Definingrelativesentences Join these sentences using who, which only when necessary. 2 I’m doing some work. I have to finish it today. 3 She’s an old woman. I often see her.. I’m doing some work I have to finish today. She’s the old woman I often see.
I. Definingrelativesentences Join these sentences using who, which only when necessary. 4 He’s an actor. A lot of people like him.. 5 The picture was hanging on that wall. It was awful. He’s the actor a lot of people like. The picture which/that was hanging on that wall was awful.
I. Definingrelativesentences Join these sentences using who, which only when necessary. 6 Mary sent me a letter. It was very funny. 7 It’s a magazine. I often read it. The letter Mary sent me was very funny. This is the magazine I often read.
I. Definingrelativesentences Join these sentences using who, which only when necessary. 8 She’s the singer. She was on TV last night. 9 I paid the bills. They came yesterday.. She’s the singer THAT/WHO was on TV last night. I paid the bills THAT/WHICH came yesterday.
Relative clauses and prepositions • In spoken English a preposition in a relative clause is usually placed in its natural position, and the relative pronoun is omitted. A more formal alternative is to put the preposition before the relative pronoun. The man is here. I talked to the man yesterday. Theman towhom I talked yesterday ishere. Theman I talked to yesterday ishere.
Relative clauses and prepositions contd… • When the object is a person: • The man I spoke to was very friendly. (or) The man who/that I spoke to was very friendly. (or) The man to whom I spoke was very friendly. (formal) • When the object is a thing: • The house I was born in is gone. (or) The house that I was born in is gone. (or) The house in which I was born is gone.(formal)
Relative clauses and prepositions CONNECT THESE SENTENCES This is the pen. I wrote the exam with the pen. That’s the policeman. I was with the policeman yesterday. That’s the girl. Paul goes out with the girl. This is the town. We arrived at the town at 6.30. This is the hotel. We stayed at the hotel with your brother. Thisisthepen I wrotetheexamwith. That’s the policeman I was with yesterday. That’s the girl Paul goes out with. This is the town we arrive at at 6.30. This is the hotel we stayed at with your brother.
Relative clauses and prepositions REWRITE THE FOLLOWING SENTENCES 1 These are the boys with whom I went on holiday. 2 Here’s the letter for which I've been waiting. 3 That is the shop from which Sue bought her bike. 5 Tim is someone to whom I hardly ever write. These are theboys I wentonholidaywith. Here’stheletterI’vebeenwaitingfor. Thatisthe shop Sueboughtherbikefrom. Tom issomeone I hardlyeverwriteto.
WHOSE • To show that something belongs to somebody: • He helped a woman whose car had broken down. • They’re the people whose house was burgled. • Whose is not usually used to refer to a thing. Of which is usually used instead. • He’s reading the book, the name of which I can never remember. • But it is more natural to say: • He’s reading that book-I can never remember its name…
Relative clauses:Translation Translate the following sentences: 1 La casa que compramos era muy cara. 2 La comida que trajiste estaba muy buena. 3 El lápiz con el que escribiste la carta está en la mesa. 4 Nos comimos los bocadillos que hizo Peter. 5 Ese es el policía que vino ayer. Thehouseweboughtwasveryexpensive. Thefoodyoubroughtwasverygood Thepencilyou rote theletterwithisonthetable. We ate thesandwiches Peter made. Tha’sthepolicemanwhocameyesterday.
Relative clauses:Translation Translate the following sentences: 6 La película que vimos era muy mala. 7 El autobús que va al aeropuerto sale a las 8. 8 El partido que vimos fue muy emocionante 9 Esta es la cama en la que duermo. 10 Esta es la señora que comió con nosotros. Themoviewesawwasreallybad. The bus thatgoestotheairportleaves at 8. The match wesawwasveryexciting. Thisisthebed I sleep in. Thisisthe lady whohad lunch withus..