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Neutrino Factory R&D in Europe

Neutrino Factory R&D in Europe

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Neutrino Factory R&D in Europe

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  1. Neutrino Factory R&D in Europe or the art to talk for half an hour about nothing… Helmut D. Haseroth CERN, Geneva, Switzerland NuFact03

  2. Then came (BIG surprise?) the LHC catastrophy… Huge reduction in accelerator R&D Organisation of European R&D: Previously the CERN Neutrino Factory Working Group was quite active together with other European labs. CLIC cut drastically (to around 4 MCHF) SPL down to around 200 k€ Neutrino Activity down to a bit of travel money (That‘s why I am still here…) NuFact03

  3. We have some (positive) impact from directors of big European labs with the intention to contribute towards neutrino R&D in spite of CERN‘s reduction! We have a European Muon Concertation and Oversight Group (EMCOG) FIRST SET OF BASIC GOALS The long-term goal is to have a Conceptual Design Report for a European Neutrino Factory Complex by the time of LHC start-up, so that, by that date, this would be a valid option for the future of CERN. An earlier construction for the proton driver (SPL + accumulator & compressor rings) is conceivable and, of course, highly desirable. The SPL, targetry and horn R&D have therefore to be given the highest priority. There are, however, a few positive points: NuFact03

  4. EMCOG members Pascal Debut Rob Edgecock NuFact03

  5. Chair: Helmut D. Haseroth Scientific Secretary: Rob Edgecock Sub-working groups with conveners: Proton Driver: SPL: Pascal Debu, Roland Garoby Proton Rings: Chris Prior Targetry: Roger Bennett Collection: Jean-Eric Campagne Frontend: Rob Edgecck Muon Acceleration + Decay Ring: Francois Meot Charged me to create European working group called: ENG (European Neutrino Group). Plenary meetings during Muon Weeks One person still from CERN… NuFact03

  6. MUON Weeks: Organized by V. Palladino: 3/year at different locations in Europe at participating labs. Covers physics and machine aspects. Resources at all European labs (manpower and money) very limited => ask the EU for support! No hope in the past for support from EU neither for high energy physics nor for accelerators, especially not for CERN. MUON Weeks NuFact03

  7. of CCLRC, CERN, DAPNIA/CEA, DESY, LNF, Orsay/IN2P3, and PSI in consultation with ECFA and ECFA is encouraged to ask for EU support. Another committee of lab directors …but now there is FP6 (framework program 6) of the European Union have decided to form a European Steering Group on Accelerator R&D (ESGARD) NuFact03

  8. NuFact03

  9. Two Contact Groups (CG) issued from ESGARD have been set up to bidding preparation, one of electron-positron linear colliders and one on super proton accelerators and neutrino beams. These CGs will create Working Groups (WG) with the people of the community involved in the relevant activities. They also maintain close contact with existing committees, boards and teams. The mandate of the CGs is to: • To act as liaison between ESGARD and the community involved in accelerator studies related to the selected theme. • To inform the relevant community of the proposals being developed on accelerator R&D for FP6 and form a Working Group to : • Establish a proposal for Networking Activities (NA) related to each theme, • Develop proposals for Joint Research Projects (JRP), • Explore whether Transnational Access (TA) as defined by the EU commission is applicable to the accelerator community and, if so, make a proposal, • Together with the WG and in consultation with ESGARD, propose the names of the coordinators for the different activities (NA, TA and JRP). • Investigate with the WG whether proposals for Design Studies (DS) and/or Construction of New Infrastructures (CNI) as defined by the EU commission is applicable and identify their scope. • Contact Group 1 on e+e- Linear Colliders : A. Antonelli, G. Guignard, F. Richard, S. Smith and D. Trines • Contact Group 2 on super proton-accelerators and neutrino beams : R. Aleksan, H. Haseroth, P. Norton and A. Wrulich NuFact03

  10. The R&D on accelerators for high energy physics is organised around three main future world-wide projects: • Electron-positron linear colliders with energies ranging between 500 and 3000 GeV in the centre-of-mass system, using the technology of superconductive high gradient accelerator structures recently developed by the TESLA international collaboration, and aiming at exploiting as well the two-beam technique for obtaining ultra-high gradients at room temperature developed by the CLIC international collaboration. • Facilities providing intense neutrino beams (see for example NUFACT, using both improvements to the existing methods based on intense proton beams, and the more novel techniques based on radioactive ion or muon beams. • Facilities providing proton beams with ultra-high intensities and energies, aiming at very large hadron colliders, and covering as well luminosity and energy upgrades of the LHC at CERN. Neutrino Factories are part of ESGARD activities NuFact03

  11. From the minutes of the Restricted ECFA, November 29, 2002 The chairman thanked R.Aleksan and ESGARD for the enormous amount of work they have already done as well as M.Spiro who has set the project going (Applause). RECFA fully supports the steps taken by ESGARD in building up the bids and will closely follow its work Statement made in the Chairman's Summary of Conclusions of the December 2002 SPC meeting at CERN The SPC strongly supported the effort to co-ordinate the accelerator R&D at the European level through the promotion of the ESGARD initiative to get support of the European Union. From the minutes of the Restricted ECFA, March 31, 2003 RECFA was impressed by the huge amount of work done by ESGARD and congratulated them for having so successfully built the proposal on accelerator R&D to the 6th EU Framework Programme. This proposal includes 6 Joint Research Projects and 3 Networks Activities, which are all considered with high priority by RECFA NuFact03

  12. Vittorio Palladino Not a lot of money for these activities. Typically 1 to 1.5 M€ for 5 years! NuFact03

  13. A possible proton driver for a Neutrino Factory NuFact03

  14. CERN Scheme NuFact03

  15. SPL basics Study group since 1999  design of a Superconducting Proton Linac (H-, 2.2 GeV).  higher brightness beams into the PS for LHC  intense beams (4 MW) for neutrino and radioactive ion physics CERN 2000-012 NuFact03

  16. SPL design parameters For neutrino physics, it has to be compressed with an Accumulator and a Compressor ring into 140 bunches, 3 ns long, forming a burst of 3.3 ms NuFact03

  17. A large inventory of LEP RF equipment is available (SC cavities, cryostats, klystrons, waveguides, circulators, etc.) which can drastically reduce the cost of construction LEP cavity modules in storage Stored LEP klystrons NuFact03

  18. SPL lay-out NuFact03

  19. SPL cross section NuFact03

  20. Accumulator and Compressor Rings (“PDAC”) 2 synchrotron rings in the ex-ISR tunnel NuFact03

  21. Roadmap (1): 3 MeV injector 1) 3 MeV pre-injector 2006 at CERN On-going collaboration with CEA (Saclay-F) and CNRS (Orsay-F) to build, test and install at CERN a 3 MeV pre-injector based on the “IPHI” RFQ (Injecteur de Protons de Haute Intensité) NuFact03

  22. Roadmap (2): Linac4 Idea: Take only the room temperature part of the SPL (120 MeV) and install it in the PS South Hall, to inject H- into the PSBooster  > twice the number of protons/pulse in the PSB (5 1013) 120 MeV, 80m, 16 LEP klystrons NuFact03

  23. Linac4 layout in South Hall to inflector & PSB NuFact03

  24. HIPPI In the frame of the CARE Initiative (ESGARD), Joint Research Activity called HIPPI (High Intensity Pulsed proton Injector) (total 6 JRA’s) 8 European Laboratories join efforts for a common R&D on high intensity linacs with energy in the range 3-200 MeV (CEA, CERN, ISN-Grenoble, GSI, IAP-Frankfurt, FZ Juelich, RAL, INFN-Mi) to prepare the upgrade of the proton accelerator facilities at CERN, GSI, RAL 4 Work Packages: 1. Normal-conducting accelerating structures 2. Superconducting accelerating structures 3. Beam chopping 4. Beam dynamics Total investment of some 15 M€ (including lab salaries), request to EU for a contribution of 4 M€over 5 years (2004-08) For CERN, this means 130 k€/yr (…). NuFact03

  25. R&D Topics - CCDTL CCDTL = Cell Coupled Drift Tube Linac, a simpler and cheaper alternative to DTL for energy > 40 MeV CCDTL prototype coupling cell quadrupole DTL-like accelerating cell (2 or 3 drift tubes) NuFact03

  26. Roadmap (3): SPL … • LEP RF cavities are getting older... • New technology can provide better performance (=gradient!) • More EU-wide interest on 700 MHz frequency, bulk Nb • Consequences: • Slowly relax the option on the LEP cavities • Consider 700 MHz already for the 100-150 MeV at Linac4. • Start market survey for 700 MHz klystrons • R&D options must be valid for both frequencies NuFact03

  27. Preliminary Layout of Neutrino Factory NuFact03

  28. European Scenarios • SPL + accumulator and compressor rings • 5 GeV, 50 Hz synchrotron-based system • 15 GeV, 25 Hz synchrotron-based system • 30 GeV, 8 Hz slow cycling synchrotron • 8 GeV, 16.67 Hz rapid cycling synchrotron for ISIS/Fermilab, plus upgrades NuFact03

  29. CERN PDAC: Bunch Compression NuFact03

  30. 180 MeV H- Linac Collimation Momentum Ramping Injection 2 bunches of 2.5 1013 protons Two 1.2 GeV, 50 Hz Rapid Cycling Synchrotrons 4 bunches of 2.5 1013 protons Two 5 GeV, 25 Hz Rapid Cycling Synchrotrons RAL 5 GeV Proton Driver NuFact03

  31. ISIS MW Upgrades and possible use as a NF test bed • 800 MeV,160 kW, 50 Hz, spallation neutron source • Current upgrade to 240 kW with new ion source, RFQ and dual harmonic RF accelerating system NuFact03

  32. Stage 1: upgrade to 1MW neutrons • Addition of a new synchrotron to increase beam energy to 3 GeV at 50 Hz • Operated at 16.67 Hz, with every third ISIS pulse, could take beam to 8 GeV and be used as a test bed for 1 ns bunch compression NuFact03

  33. Stage 2: Upgrade to 4-5 MW • Design and build new linac and two new booster synchrotrons with radius 39 m, operating at 50 Hz to 1.6 GeV (h=3) • Build a second 78 m racetrack • Operate the two racetracks at 25Hz on alternate cycles • 2MW beam power in each rings • 4MW neutron source • 2MW to neutron target + 2MW to pion target • 4MW to pion target 180 MeV Linac 39m radius 78m radius NuFact03

  34. Current Status CERN have had considerable success with studies of mercury jets (with BNL), including within solenoidal fields. CERN are are also studying granular targets. PSI are building a liquid metal target. They are involved with the US in liquid metal targets for high power spallation sources. RAL has done preliminary tests on shock waves in hot tantalum using electron beams. CERNISOLDE have experience of the problems of radioactivity and of shock waves. They have a laboratory suitable for handling active materials and molten metals - mercury. CERN, PSI (not pulsed) and RAL have facilities providing high power proton beams. Also in the US at Los Alamos, Brookhaven and FNAL. Target Studies NuFact03

  35. The Liquid Metal (Mercury) Jet • The jet is constantly being reformed for every pulse. The jet becomes “heated” by the beam and disperses to hit the walls • No Problems with: • Radiation Damage • Shock Damage • Power dissipation • Possible Problems with: • Jet formation • Interaction with the magnetic field • Interaction of the mercury with other equipment • Tests to date indicate that the jet is viable NuFact03

  36. Hg-jet p-converter target with a pion focusing horn NuFact03

  37. Targetry Many difficulties: enormous power density lifetime problems pion capture Replace target between bunches: Liquid mercury jet or rotating solid target Stationary target: Proposed rotating tantalum target ring Densham Sievers NuFact03

  38. Granular Target NuFact03

  39. A Water Cooled Cu-Ni Rotating Band Target (BNL and FNAL, Bruce King) • A Radiation Cooled Rotating Toroid, (RAL) • TOROID OPERATES AT 2000-2500 K • RADIATION COOLED • ROTATES IN A VACUUM • VACUUM CHAMBER WALLS WATER COOLED • NO WINDOWS • SHOCK? Pbar target OK. Tests using electron beam simulation indicate no problem. NuFact03

  40. V No threading solenoid V = Lf R not fixed Individual Targets Levitated Reservoir for targets to collect and cool NuFact03

  41. Advantages of Solid Target • No windows • Cooling in the walls • Simple concept • Disadvantages • Large rotating toroid or individual targets • Problems if toroid breaks • Thermal shock - toroid breaks • Very radioactive NuFact03

  42. Tests by RAL with electron beams show that tantalum foils can withstand at least 200000 pulses and have lasted for 1000000. NuFact03

  43. Collector 1. Solenoid, 10-20 Tesla US consider they have a long life (>1 year) design 2. Horn Problems with: Heat dissipation, Radiation damage, Stress Possible 6 week life Studies will continue NuFact03

  44. Double horn concept NuFact03

  45. Horn prototype ready for tests NuFact03

  46. Acoustic frequency meas. Horn eigenfrequencies from horn “sound” dB Hz NuFact03

  47. What we planned to do • First “inner” horn 1:1 prototype • Power supply for Test One: 30 kA and 1 Hz, pulse 100 ms long • First mechanical measurements • Test of numerical results for vibration • Test of cooling system • Test Two: 100 kA and 0.5 Hz, 100 ms long • test of this power supply during last weeks • Last test: 300 kA and 50 Hz Unknown schedule Goal: Horn Life-Time 6 weeks (2*108 pulses) NuFact03

  48. NuFact03

  49. Hg-jet system • Power absorbed in Hg-jet 1 MW • Operating pressure 100 Bar • Flow rate 2 t/m • Jet speed 30 m/s • Jet diameter 10 mm • Temperature- Inlet to target 30° C- Exit from target 100° C • Total Hg inventory 10 t • Pump power 50 kW NuFact03

  50. If you do not like this… Try funneling! B. Autin, F. Meot, A. Verdier NuFact03