How to DescribeTeaching. Causing to know or understand Showing or helping someone to learn how to do something, To satisfy the practical demands of education. Teaching. Guiding and facilitating learning Enabling the learners to learn Setting the conditions for learning. Teaching.
How to DescribeTeaching • Causing to know or understand • Showing or helping someone to learn how to do something, • To satisfy the practical demands of education
Teaching • Guiding and facilitating learning • Enabling the learners to learn • Setting the conditions for learning
Teaching • Giving instructions, guiding in the study of smt. • Providing knowledge,
Teaching • partnership, • teacher’s job to help learners learn,
Teaching • Responsibility of what happens in the class. • Resources used, • the type • order of activities (pair work, group work, solowork, reading puzzle for individual work) • classroom management, • assessment, • feedback, • correction and so on.
Teaching • Understanding learners’ language needs and responding to them positivily, • Designs lessons reflecting needs and develope communicative skills,
Teaching • Monitors and corrects sensitively, • Feedback and encouragement when approprite, • Tells not to worry about making mistakes (natural part),
Teaching • Encourages GLB(goodlearning behaviour) outside and inside, • Keeps track of progress (gaps in ability &repeated errors)
Teaching • Creates an input-rich environment:e.g. Putting lots of pictures with English text on the walls. • Encourages to read English texts or listen to the radio (BBC online), CD,Audio cassette,tv programme-excellence source of input.
teaching • Relationship between learning&teaching is complicated and often not direct. • Learners often don’t learn what we teach.
How to structure support in the classroom • We need to provide carefully structured support in the classroom. This support is called : • SCAFFOLDING
WHAT IS SCAFFOLDING • Teacher supports the efforts of the learner, • guiding student in the right direction, • until the knowledge and understanding the students have built is strong enough for the scaffolding to be taken away.
Scaffolded learning involves the teacher in: • Designing activities which break down the learning task into manageable stages, • Designing activities that build on previous activities,
Scaffolding involves teacher in: • Helping learners see how the knowledge they already have is useful for making sense of the new knowledge, • Deciding when learners are ready to move on to the next stage.
scaffolding • Whatever your activities your learners involved in you should encourage them to think about what they are doing, • careful move from one stage to another from what your learners know, towards the new knowledge
Practising scaffolding Learners will move from the point of being able to say My name is… and I live in…to exchange information on their names, addresses and their telephone numbers. The scaffolding is achieved through input from the teacher, pair work, individual work, and whole class work NOW LOOK AT THE HANDOUTS ABOUT HOW TO PRACTICE SCAFFOLDING
What elements are necessary for successful language in real world? • Learners outside classroomneed to be: • Repeatedly exposure of any language • Unconsciously, • through right contact, • Sufficient opportunities,
Learner needs natu.envirnmt. • motivated to learn the lang.to communicate, • Checking their own progres and abilities through communication,
In natural environment • A child in a natural environment will have massive exposure to the foreign language – ten hours each day or more! The child also has a very strong 'survival motivation' to acquire the new language. Only through that language can she eat, drink, make friends and play games. • In our normal schools, we cannot reproduce those conditions (although some experiments have attempted to do this).
How can we create nat. Evn. • If we can't reproduce the conditions of 'natural acquisition', we are forced to adopt a system of 'graded exposure' to the foreign language, and a similar graded presentation and explanation of the systems of the new language. In fact, we have to develop a language learning syllabus.
If students do not find enough exposure of language • Then what shall we do? • We have to structure our teaching in the classroom in a practical way to teach.
How do we structure our teaching? • The 3Ps:PPP • Presentation, Practice, Production • This is an approach that often fits into a lesson structure. • Tachers plan three phases in their lessons according to the PPP
During Presentation • new language is presented perhaps as a grammatical pattern or more frequently within some familiar situation. During this presentation phase, the teacher is often very active and dominates the class doing more than 90% of the talking.
During Practice • the new language item is identified, repeated and manipulated by the students. Unless the teacher is using pairwork or a language laboratory, the teacher also dominates this phase of the lesson occupying more than 50% of the talking in class.
During Production • the students attempt to use the new language in different contexts provided by the teacher.
PPP • Teacher presents language structure • then gives students opportunity to practice it through very controlled activities • then give opportunity to practice the target language in freer activities which bring in other language elements.
Disadvantage • Less workable at higher level, • Used for isolated grammar items,
PPP-Practice • The teacher presents the new language in a meaningful context, • How? By • Building up a story, • Using realia or flashcards, • miming
Examples of presentation stage • 2nd conditional sentences: • Draw a picture of yourself with thought bubbles of lots of money, a sports car, a big house,and a world map. • Ask students what you are thinking about and then introduce the target language
PPP-Presentation How? • If I had money, I would buy a sport car/a big house. • Practice and drill the sentence before writing on the board (negative,positive, question,and short answer), • Then focus on the form • What do we use after IF? • And questions on meaning to check whether students understand or not • Do I have lots of money? (no), • What am I doing? (imagining)
PPP-Presentation • When you are satisfied that your students understand the form and the meaning move on to the practice stage of the lesson. • During this stage it is important to correct phonological and grammatical mistakes. • Worksheets!
PPP-Practice- fairly controlled stage • Numerous activities: • Gap fill exercises, • Substitution drills, • Sentence transformation • Split sentences, • Picture dictation, • Class questionnaries, • Reordering sentences, • Matching sentences to pictures
PPP-practice • in this stage use split sentences as a controlled practice activity, • Gives lots of sentences halves and in pairs they try to match the beginnings and ends of the sentences: • Eg.If I won the lottary…… • I would buy a big house, • Then you have them play a communicative game like snap, or pelmanism • Using the same sentence halves
PPP-production • various activities in this stage, • Role play, dialogue, • information gaps, • Interview, • Simulation, • Find someone who spots the differences between two pictures, • Picture cues, • Personalization activity, board games, • Problem solving,
PPP-production • How we can personalise it: • Eg. Do/if/win the lottary? • The questions are still controlled but students are given opportunity to answer more spontaneously using other langage items,the activity becomes much less predictable.
PPP-production • At this stage is important to monitor and take notes of errors so that you can build feedback and make error analysis at the end of the course. (chapter six example1)
dadvantage • only 'thin slices' of language one slice at a time. • PPP does not work so well when teaching more complex language patterns beyond the sentence level or communicative language skills. • PPP model has finished
What other elements for successfol language classroom • Motivate, expose langue and give chance to use it, so the elements of classroom shoulde help learner effectively. • These elements are called ESA, • (ALL CLASSES)
What is the meaning of ESA • Engage: the point where teachers try to arouse the students' interest. • Study: refer to activities where student are asked to focus on language and how it constructed. • Activate: this element describes exercise and activities designed to get students to use language as freely and as communicatively as they can.
50-60 minutes class hours are divided into three different segments • It is very unlikely that these segments will be equal in duration. But the length of the segments may depend on your students understanding ability. Sometimes Activate will probably be the longest phase but Study will probably be longer than Engage etc.So, the time alloted to the stages may differ.
Engage • teacher tries to arouse the students' interest curiosity and attention and engage their emotions. through a • Game (depends on age and level) • the use of a picture, Guessing (occupation) before listening on tape/you yourself can wear, CAN/CANNOT (differences pictures) • audio recording • video sequence, • a dramatic story, • an amusing anecdote, etc.
engage • If you do not use these as engage activities you may ask them to think of a topic before going on reading, guessing the title by looking at the pictures
Study • Main focus is the construction of languageactivities focuses on language (or information) and how it is constructed. • The focus of study could vary from the pronunciation of one particular sound to (the differences between sounds cheap, chip, bit-beat, • the techniques from an examination of a verb tense to the study of a transcript of an informal conversation to study spoken style (inviting patterns would you like to…).
Study • Students may work in groups-examine a text to discover topic- or related vocabulary to the teacher giving an explanation of a grammatical pattern (first the teacher explains grammar). Plural from of 3rd person, or students may find Or read the text find the conclusion part etc. • Look at the dialogues and identify the differences between the child-mother and student-dean conversations are good examples for study.
Activate • This phase describes the exercises and activities which are designed to get students to use the language as communicatively as they can. • students do not focus on language construction or practice particular language patterns, but use their full language knowledge in the selected situation or task. • It is the longest phase.
Activate • This phase offers students a chance to try out real language use with almost ne restriction-a kind of rehearsal (prov) for the real world. • Eg: one student represents a travel agent and a client and dialogue between them, • Or write ads, • Or one student stands for shop-assistant and the other one is a client to buy smt.
Activate • Eg. Describing object,drawing a picture or one of students in the classroom and the other students or group guess it, and then the rests do the same thing. • Plan a trip, write a diary • Look at the picture what would you do if you were that boy in the picture, • Write your feelings about the picture, • Discussions,
ESA • The three elements may not take place in the same order this will depend on your students’ learning • you may turn back to the study phase or other phases this is called boomerang sequence you have to be sure that your • students are at the activate level or else you will be back to study level.
Example from your book (p:27) • Straight (line) arrows sequence means: (good at elementary level) Study Activate engage
Practice Engage Phase • The topic is can/cannot • Show a picture or a short video film of The Smurfs. Ask them what is Smurfs? What are they doing? • Do you like The Smurfs? • Why? • You ask what they can do? • What can Genius Smurf do? • What can Joker Smurf do? etc.