Historical Designers The Early Socialites: Elsie de Wolfe Dorothy Draper Syrie Maugham Eleanor McMillan Brown Sister Parish Ruby Ross Wood Billy Baldwin
Elsie De Wolfe • First to create the occupation of interior decorating • Considered the first lady of interior decoration • Moved away from the Victorian design
Dorothy Draper • First successful commercial designer • Hotel projects and public spaces • Total design including china, furniture down to the match books • Her ornate style of eye-popping colors and oversize prints, lost popularity in the 1950’s
Dorothy Draper • Metropolitan Museum Café, 1950’s
Eleanor McMillan Brown • Started the first full service design firm in 1924 called McMillan, Inc. in NYC. • The company created many great designers like Albert Hadley, David Hicks and Billy Baldwin • The company is still in business today.
Sister Parish • First decorator to decorate the Kennedy White House • Co-founder of Parrish-Hadley Assoc. 1962-1999 • Known for painted furniture, quilts and a lived-in look.
Ruby Ross Wood • Career started as a reporter and a writer on interior decorating • Was the ghostwriter or Elsie de Wolfe’s A House in Good Taste. • Credited for creating the first department store decorating firm. • She was a longtime employer of Billy Baldwin.
Billy Baldwin • Began working for Ruby Ross Wood in 1935 and took it over in 1952. • First to use brown with panache • Known for glossy brown walls
19th and Early 20th Century William Morris Charles Rennie Mackintosh Gustav Stickley Frank Lloyd Wright
One of the most influential designers of the last 150 years • 1834-1896 • Painter, typography, wallpaper, carpets and stained glass • Pioneer of the Arts and Crafts Movement
Charles Rennie Mackintosh • Scottish Architect and designer • Attended and designed the Glasgow School of Art • His work was light, elegant and original • Known for furniture, particularly those with tall, straight backs.
Gustav Stickley(1857-1942) • American craftsman and business owner • A major force behind the Arts and Crafts Movement in America • Designed furniture that was simple with exposed joinery made from oak. • Stressed handmade furniture over machine made. • His designs were referred to as Mission or Craftsman
The Craftsman Home • Designed for the middle class • A lot of wood with built-ins using available materials • Form follows function • Light fixtures and hardware related to overall design.
Frank Lloyd Wright (1867-1959) • American Architect • Founded Taliesin Fellowship in 1932 (Wisconsin and Arizona) • Leader in the style known as Prairie Style
Wright Style • Created the open floor plan • Used corner windows • Used natural materials and designed for a feeling of being one with nature • Used low pitch roofs (no attics or basements) with a horizontal feel • Always used a fireplace – heart of the home • Designed furniture with lots of built-ins
Modern (International Style) Designers Mies Van der Rohe Le Corbusier Philip Johnson Marcel Breuer Charles and Ray Eames
Mies Van der Rohe (1886 – 1969) • German Architect • Last Director of Bauhaus School of Design in Germany • Started the movement of the “International Style” (use of glass and steel) • Famous quote: “Less is more” • Developed the first cantilever chair • Famous chair: Barcelona Chair dating to 1929
Mies Van der Rohe • Farnsworth House in the late 1940’s • International style use of steel and glass
Le Corbusier (1887 – 1965) • French Architect • Worked in the International Style • Used a lot of concrete, class and steel with lots of open spaces
Le Corbusier Furniture • Chaise Lounge, 1927 • Grande Comfort, 1929 • Basculant Chair, 1929
Le Corbusier • Villa Savoye, 1928 - 31, France • “Machine for Living” • International Style
Philip Johnson (1906-2005) • American Architect known for his “International Style” • Pupil of Mies Van der Rohe • Best known for his the Glass House
Marcel Breuer (1902 – 1981) • Hungarian born architect, furniture designer and teacher. • Trained under Walter Gropius, founder of the Bauhaus School of Design • Invented the first tubular steel frame used in furniture. • Known for his tubular steel chair, Wassily.
Marcel Breuer • Wassily Chair, 1925 • Cantilever Chair, 1928
Charles and Ray Eames • American architect/furniture designer. • Known for tubular steel and molded plywood chair called the “Potato Chip” chair. • His furniture is still produced by Herman Miller.
Current Designers Michael Graves Frank Gehry Mario Buatta Leading Firms