cwna guide to wireless lans second edition
Skip this Video
Download Presentation
CWNA Guide to Wireless LANs, Second Edition

Loading in 2 Seconds...

play fullscreen
1 / 54

CWNA Guide to Wireless LANs, Second Edition - PowerPoint PPT Presentation

  • Uploaded on

CWNA Guide to Wireless LANs, Second Edition. Chapter Three How Wireless Works. Objectives. Explain the principals of radio wave transmissions Describe RF loss and gain, and how it can be measured List some of the characteristics of RF antenna transmissions

I am the owner, or an agent authorized to act on behalf of the owner, of the copyrighted work described.
Download Presentation

PowerPoint Slideshow about 'CWNA Guide to Wireless LANs, Second Edition' - spyridon

An Image/Link below is provided (as is) to download presentation

Download Policy: Content on the Website is provided to you AS IS for your information and personal use and may not be sold / licensed / shared on other websites without getting consent from its author.While downloading, if for some reason you are not able to download a presentation, the publisher may have deleted the file from their server.

- - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - E N D - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - -
Presentation Transcript
cwna guide to wireless lans second edition

CWNA Guide to Wireless LANs, Second Edition

Chapter Three

How Wireless Works

  • Explain the principals of radio wave transmissions
  • Describe RF loss and gain, and how it can be measured
  • List some of the characteristics of RF antenna transmissions
  • Describe the different types of antennas
what are radio waves
What Are Radio Waves?
  • Electromagnetic wave: Travels freely through space in all directions at speed of light
  • Radio wave: When electric current passes through a wire it creates a magnetic field around the wire
    • As magnetic field radiates, creates an electromagnetic radio wave
      • Spreads out through space in all directions
    • Can travel long distances
    • Can penetrate non-metallic objects
analog vs digital transmissions
Analog vs. Digital Transmissions

Analog signal: Continuous

Digital signal: Discrete

analog vs digital transmissions continued
Analog vs. Digital Transmissions (continued)
  • Analog signals are continuous
  • Digital signals are discrete
  • Modem (MOdulator/DEModulator): Used when digital signals must be transmitted over analog medium
    • On originating end, converts distinct digital signals into continuous analog signal for transmission
    • On receiving end, reverse process performed
  • WLANs use digital transmissions
frequency continued
Frequency (continued)
  • Frequency: Rate at which an event occurs
  • Cycle: Changing event that creates different radio frequencies
    • When wave completes trip and returns back to starting point it has finished one cycle
  • Hertz (Hz): Cycles per second
    • Kilohertz (KHz) = thousand hertz
    • Megahertz (MHz) = million hertz
    • Gigahertz (GHz) = billion hertz
frequency continued8
Frequency (continued)

Electrical terminology

frequency continued9
Frequency (continued)
  • Frequency of radio wave can be changed by modifying voltage
  • Radio transmissions send a carrier signal
    • Increasing voltage will change frequency of carrier signal
frequency continued10
Frequency (continued)

Lower and higher frequencies

  • Carrier signal is a continuous electrical signal
    • Carries no information
  • Three types of modulations enable carrier signals to carry information
    • Height of signal
    • Frequency of signal
    • Relative starting point
  • Modulation can be done on analog or digital transmissions
analog modulation
Analog Modulation
  • Amplitude: Height of carrier wave
  • Amplitude modulation (AM): Changes amplitude so that highest peaks of carrier wave represent 1 bit while lower waves represent 0 bit
  • Frequency modulation (FM): Changes number of waves representing one cycle
    • Number of waves to represent 1 bit more than number of waves to represent 0 bit
  • Phase modulation (PM): Changes starting point of cycle
    • When bits change from 1 to 0 bit or vice versa
analog modulation continued14
Analog Modulation (continued)

Amplitude modulation (AM)

analog modulation continued15
Analog Modulation (continued)

Frequency modulation (FM)

analog modulation continued16
Analog Modulation (continued)

Phase modulation (PM)

digital modulation
Digital Modulation
  • Advantages over analog modulation:
    • Better use of bandwidth
    • Requires less power
    • Better handling of interference from other signals
    • Error-correcting techniques more compatible with other digital systems
  • Unlike analog modulation, changes occur in discrete steps using binary signals
    • Uses same three basic types of modulation as analog
digital modulation continued
Digital Modulation (continued)

Amplitude shift keying (ASK)

digital modulation continued19
Digital Modulation (continued)

Frequency shift keying (FSK)

digital modulation continued20
Digital Modulation (continued)

Phase shift keying (PSK)

radio frequency behavior gain
Radio Frequency Behavior: Gain
  • Gain: Positive difference in amplitude between two signals
    • Achieved by amplification of signal
    • Technically, gain is measure of amplification
    • Can occur intentionally from external power source that amplifies signal
    • Can occur unintentionally when RF signal bounces off an object and combines with original signal to amplify it
radio frequency behavior loss
Radio Frequency Behavior: Loss
  • Loss: Negative difference in amplitude between signals
    • Attenuation
    • Can be intentional or unintentional
    • Intentional loss may be necessary to decrease signal strength to comply with standards or to prevent interference
    • Unintentional loss can be cause by many factors
radio frequency behavior loss continued
Radio Frequency Behavior: Loss (continued)

Absorption: RF signal is soaked up by certain materials such as concrete, wood, and asphalt

  • Microwave signals:
    • Frequencies between 1 GHz – 30 GHz (this can vary among experts).
    • Wavelength between 12 inches down to less than 1 inch.
  • Microwave signals reflect off objects that are larger than their wavelength, such as buildings, cars, flat stretches of ground, and bodes of water.
  • Each time the signal is reflected, the amplitude is reduced.
microwave reflections
Microwave Reflections

Multipath Reflection

  • Advantage: Can use reflection to go around obstruction.
  • Disadvantage: Multipath reflection – occurs when reflections cause more than one copy of the same transmission to arrive at the receiver at slightly different times.
multipath reflection
Multipath Reflection
  • Reflected signals 1 and 2 take slightly longer paths than direct signal, arriving slightly later.
  • These reflected signals sometimes cause problems at the receiver by partially canceling the direct signal, effectively reducing the amplitude.
  • The link throughput slows down because the receiver needs more time to either separate the real signal from the reflected echoes or to wait for missed frames to be retransmitted.
  • Solution discussed later.
multipath reflection28
Multipath Reflection

Delay spread is a parameter used to signify Multipath. The delay of reflected signal is measured in nanoseconds (ns). The amount of delay spread varies for indoor home, office, and manufacturing environments.

Multipath and Diversity Article from Cisco

  • Diffraction. This occurs when the wave encounters an edge. The wave has the ability to turn the corner of the edge. This ability of waves to turn corners is called diffraction. It is markedly dependent on frequency -- the higher the frequency, the less diffraction. Very high frequencies (light) hardly diffract at all; "light travels in straight lines."
  • A diffracted signal is usually attenuated so much it is too weak to provide a reliable microwave connection.
  • Do not plan to use a diffracted signal, and always try to obtain an unobstructed path between microwave antennas.

Diffracted Signal

Reflection,Refraction, and Diffraction

weather precipitation
Weather - Precipitation

Precipitation: Rain, snow, hail, fog, and sleet.

  • Rain, Snow and Hail
    • Wavelength of 2.4 GHz 802.11b/g signal is 4.8 inches
    • Wavelength of 5.7 GHz 802.11a signal is 2 inches
    • Much larger than rain drops and snow, thus do not significantly attenuate these signals.
  • At frequencies 10 GHz and above, partially melted snow and hail do start to cause significant attenuation.
radio frequency behavior loss continued32
Radio Frequency Behavior: Loss (continued)

Voltage Standing Wave Ratio (VSWR): Caused by the equipment itself. If one part of the equipment has different impedance than another part, the RF signal may be reflected back within the device itself.

rf measurement rf math
RF Measurement: RF Math
  • RF power measured by two units on two scales:
    • Linear scale:
      • Using milliwatts (mW)
      • Reference point is zero
      • Does not reveal gain or loss in relation to whole
    • Relative scale:
      • Reference point is the measurement itself
      • Often use logarithms
      • Measured in decibels (dB)
  • 1mW = 0 dB
Calculating dB
  • P(dBm) =10log P(mW)
  • P(mW) = 10(dBm/10)
  • Change in Power (dBm) = 10log10 (P(final mw) /P(reference mw))
    • dB = The amount of decibels.
      • This usually represents:
        • a loss in power such as when the wave travels or interacts with matter,
        • can also represent a gain as when traveling through an amplifier.
    • Pfinal = The final power. This is the delivered power after some process has occurred.
    • Pref = The reference power. This is the original power.
  • Lab 3.1: Performing RF Math Calculations
  • Confirm your answers
rf measurement rf math continued
RF Measurement: RF Math (continued)

The 10’s and 3’s Rules of RF Math

rf measurement rf math continued36
RF Measurement: RF Math (continued)
  • dBm: Reference point that relates decibel scale to milliwatt scale
  • Equivalent Isotropically Radiated Power (EIRP): Power radiated out of antenna of a wireless system
    • Includes intended power output and antenna gain
    • Uses isotropic decibels (dBi) for units
      • Reference point is theoretical antenna with 100 percent efficiency
inverse square law
Inverse square law
  • “Signal strength does not fade in a linear manner, but inversely as the square of the distance.
  • This means that if you are at a particular distance from an access point and you move twice as far away, the signal level will decrease by a factor of four.”

Twice the distance

Point A

Point B

¼ the power of Point A

inverse square law38
Inverse square law







  • Double the distance of the wireless link, we receive only ¼ of the original power.
  • Triple the distance of the wireless link, we receive only 1/9 the original power.
  • Move 5 times the distance, signal decreases by 1/25.

Point A

10 times the distance 1/100 the power of A

3 times the distance 1/9 the power of Point A

2 times the distance ¼ the power of Point A

5 times the distance 1/25 the power of Point A

rf measurement wlan measurements
RF Measurement: WLAN Measurements
  • In U.S., FCC defines power limitations for WLANs
    • Limit distance that WLAN can transmit
  • Transmitter Power Output (TPO): Measure of power being delivered to transmitting antenna. This is generally 100 milliwatts.
  • When using omni-directional antennas having less than 6 dB gain in this scenario, the FCC rules require EIRP to be 1 watt (1,000 milliwatts) or less.
  • In most cases, you'll be within regulations using omni-directional antennas supplied by the vendor of your radio NICs and access points. For example, you can set the transmit power in an 802.11b access point or client to its highest level (generally 100 milliwatts) and use a typical 3 dB omni-directional antenna. This combination results in only 200 milliwatts EIRP, which is well within FCC regulations. Read more here.
  • Receive Signal Strength Indicator (RSSI): Used to determine dBm, mW, signal strength percentage
antenna concepts
Antenna Concepts
  • Radio waves transmitted/received using antennas

Antennas are required for sending and receiving radio signals

characteristics of rf antenna transmissions continued
Characteristics of RF Antenna Transmissions (continued)
  • Wave propagation: Pattern of wave dispersal
  • Read More on Ionosphere

Sky wave propagation

characteristics of rf antenna transmissions continued43
Characteristics of RF Antenna Transmissions (continued)
  • Because RF LOS propagation requires alignment of sending and receiving antennas, ground-level objects can obstruct signals
    • Can cause refraction or diffraction
    • Multipath distortion: Refracted or diffracted signals reach receiving antenna later than signals that do not encounter obstructions
  • Antenna diversity: Uses multiple antennas, inputs, and receivers to overcome multipath distortion
characteristics of rf antenna transmissions continued44
Characteristics of RF Antenna Transmissions (continued)
  • Determining extent of “late” multipath signals can be done by calculating Fresnel zone

Fresnel zone

characteristics of rf antenna transmissions continued45
Characteristics of RF Antenna Transmissions (continued)
  • As RF signal propagates, it spreads out
    • Free space path loss: Greatest source of power loss in a wireless system
    • Antenna gain: Only way for an increase in amplification by antenna
      • Alter physical shape of antenna
    • Beamwidth: Measure of focusing of radiation emitted by antenna
      • Measured in horizontal and vertical degrees
characteristics of rf antenna transmissions continued46
Characteristics of RF Antenna Transmissions (continued)

Free space path loss for IEEE 802.11b and 802.11g WLANs

antenna types and their installations
Antenna Types and Their Installations
  • Two fundamental characteristics of antennas:
    • As frequency gets higher, wavelength gets smaller
      • Size of antenna smaller
    • As gain increases, coverage area narrows
      • High-gain antennas offer larger coverage areas than low-gain antennas at same input power level
  • Omni-directional antenna: Radiates signal in all directions equally
    • Most common type of antenna
antenna types and their installations continued
Antenna Types and Their Installations (continued)
  • Semi-directional antenna: Focuses energy in one direction
    • Primarily used for short and medium range remote wireless bridge networks
  • Highly-directional antennas: Send narrowly focused signal beam
    • Generally concave dish-shaped devices
    • Used for long distance, point-to-point wireless links
wlan antenna locations and installation
WLAN Antenna Locations and Installation
  • Because WLAN systems use omni-directional antennas to provide broadest area of coverage, APs should be located near middle of coverage area
  • Antenna should be positioned as high as possible
  • If high-gain omni-directional antenna used, must determine that users located below antenna area still have reception
  • A type of electromagnetic wave that travels through space is called a radiotelephony wave or radio wave
  • An analog signal is a continuous signal with no breaks in it
  • A digital signal consists of data that is discrete or separate, as opposed to continuous
  • The carrier signal sent by radio transmissions is simply a continuous electrical signal and the signal itself carries no information
summary continued
Summary (continued)
  • Three types of modulations or changes to the signal can be made to enable it to carry information: signal height, signal frequency, or the relative starting point
  • Gain is defined as a positive difference in amplitude between two signals
  • Loss, or attenuation, is a negative difference in amplitude between signals
  • RF power can be measured by two different units on two different scales
summary continued54
Summary (continued)
  • An antenna is a copper wire or similar device that has one end in the air and the other end connected to the ground or a grounded device
  • There are a variety of characteristics of RF antenna transmissions that play a role in properly designing and setting up a WLAN