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Chapter 3: The Biosphere. Objectives Identify the levels of organization Describe the methods used to study ecology Identify the source of energy for life processes Trace the flow of energy through living systems

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Presentation Transcript
slide2
Objectives
    • Identify the levels of organization
    • Describe the methods used to study ecology
    • Identify the source of energy for life processes
    • Trace the flow of energy through living systems
    • Describe how matter cycles among the living and nonliving parts of an ecosystem.
    • Explain why nutrients are important in living systems.
what is ecology
What is Ecology?
  • Ecology is the scientific study of interactions among organisms and between organisms and their environment.
  • What does this mean?
  • How do we study these interactions?
organism
Organism

An individual living thing

population
Population

Members of one species that interbreed and live in the same place at the same time.

slide9

Population

  • Compete for:
    • Food
    • Water
    • Shelter
    • Mates
community
Community
  • Different populations that live together in a defined area.
  • Several populations interacting together.
ecosystem
Ecosystem
  • A collection of all of the organisms that live in a particular place, together with their nonliving, or physical environment.
ecosystem1
Ecosystem
  • Biotic Factors: living organisms within an ecosystem
  • Abiotic Factors: nonliving factors that help shape an ecosystem
biomes
Biomes
  • A group of ecosystems that have the same climate and similar dominant communities.
biosphere
Biosphere
  • The highest level of organization that ecologists study is the entire biosphere itself.
  • The portion of

the Earth that

supports life.

slide15

BIOSPHERE

BIOME

ECOSYSTEM

COMMUNITY

POPULATION

ORGANISM

ecological methods
Ecological Methods
  • Ecologists use a wide range of tools and techniques to study the living world.
  • Apply the scientific method to do ecological research:
    • Observing
    • Experimenting
    • Modeling
interactions between organisms
Interactions Between Organisms

All organisms depend upon other living things and nonliving things to meet their needs, such as:

Food

Shelter

Reproduction

Protection

Thus, an interdependence exists among organisms and the environment

energy flow
Energy Flow
  • All living things need ENERGY to survive.
  • Where does this energy ultimately come from?
autotrophs
Autotrophs
  • Organisms thatcaptureenergy from sunlight or chemicals and use that energy to producefood.
  • Ex. Bacteria,

plants, and algae

Also called producers

heterotrophs
Heterotrophs
  • Rely on other organisms for

their energy and food supply

  • Also called consumers
types of consumers
Types of Consumers
  • Herbivores
  • Carnivores
  • Omnivores
  • Detritivores
  • Decomposers
slide22

Herbivores

Heterotrophs that eat plants (1st order consumers)

slide23
Heterotrophs that eat animals

They come in many sizes!

Carnivores

slide24

Omnivores

Eat both plants and animals

Ex: humans, raccoons, bears

slide25

Detritivores

Animals that feed on animal remains and dead matter (collectively called detritus)

EX: mites, earthworms, snails, crabs

slide26

Decomposers

Break down decaying matter

Ex: bacteria and fungi

feeding relationships
Feeding Relationships
  • What happens to the energy in an ecosystem when one organism eats another?
    • The energy moves along a one-way path.
  • Energy flows through an ecosystem in one direction, from the sun to autotrophs and then to various heterotrophs
food chains
Food Chains
  • The energy stored by producers can be passed through an ecosystem along a food chain, a series of steps in which organisms transfer energy by eating and being eaten.
a food chain shows how matter and energy move through an ecosystem
A food chain shows how matter and energy move through an ecosystem

Each organism represents a trophic level, a step in the food chain.

Natural Food Chain

Sun Grass Rabbit Snake Hawk

The arrows show the direction that energy is transferred

food web
Food Web
  • Shows all of the possible feeding relationships at each trophic level in the community.
slide32

Tertiary consumers

Secondary consumers

Primary Consumers-

herbivores

Producers

slide33

Ecological Pyramids

  • A diagram that shows the relative amounts of energy or matter contained within each trophic level in a food chain or food web.
  • 3 types
    • Energy pyramids
    • Biomass pyramids
    • Pyramids of numbers
slide34

Energy Pyramid

  • Only part of the energy that is stored in one trophic level is passed on to the next level…. why?
    • Organisms use much of the energy that they consume for life processes (reproduction, respiration, and movement).
  • Only 10% of the energy available within one trophic level is transferred to organisms at the next trophic level.
slide35

Biomass Pyramid

  • The total amount of living tissue within a given trophic level is called biomass.
  • A biomass pyramid represents the amount of potential food available for each trophic level in an ecosystem.
slide36

Pyramid of Numbers

  • Pyramid based on the numbers of individual organisms at each trophic level.
slide38

Water

  • The water cycle is the continuous movement of water between Earth and its atmosphere.
slide40

Carbon Cycle

  • Carbon is an essential component of proteins, fats, and carbohydrates
  • The carbon cycle is a process by which carbon is cycled between the atmosphere, land, water, and organisms.
slide41

Carbon Cycle

  • Four processes
    • Respiration (adds)
    • Combustion (adds)
    • Decomposition (adds)
    • Photosynthesis (removes)
slide42

Carbon Cycle

  • The carbon cycle has been operating to keep the amount of carbon dioxide in balance between the atmosphere and Earth.
  • HOWEVER, the burning of fossil fuels has added more carbon dioxide than can be removed by plants during photosynthesis.
slide43

Carbon Cycle

  • Carbon dioxide is considered a greenhouse gas …it traps heat on Earth.
  • This contributes to global warming, which has led to an overall increase in the Earth’s average temperature.
slide45

Nitrogen Cycle

*78% of the atmosphere is composed of nitrogen

*Living things cannot use nitrogen in the atmospheric form

*Lightening and some bacteria convert nitrogen to usable forms, then producers use them to make proteins. Consumers then eat the producers and reuse the nitrogen to make their own proteins!

*When organisms die, decomposers return nitrogen to the soil and it is either reused or converted into nitrogen gas and returned to the atmosphere.

slide46

Nutrient Limitation

Primary Productivity—rate at which an organic matter is created by producers

Process can be limited by a lack of nutrients

slide47

A polar bear, its fur stained with algae, stands in its cage at Higashiyama Zoo in Nagoya, central Japan, Saturday, Sept. 6, 2008. Three polar bears at the zoo changed their colors in July after swimming in a pond with an overgrowth of algae, prompting many questions from visitors concerned about whether the animals are sick or carrying mold, a zoo official said. Credit: AP Photo/Kyodo News, Shuzo Shikano