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  1. Today – 1/16 • Critter in the news • Beginning and end (?) of dinosaurs • First writing assignment

  2. .5-pt XC quiz: The Karoo is: a river in Uganda an extinct bird a mild east wind in Botswana a desert in South Africa all of the above

  3. Administration: • “Get to know you” form worth 2 pts XC • Ross’ OH: Th 2:30-3:30 • Note taker • D2l

  4. Dino cancer

  5. Possible test question: Scientists think that the oldest known fossil cancer, a softball-sized dino tumor, may have: resulted from an injury sustained in competition for a mate been caused by a virus started during a teenage growth-spurt all of the above

  6. Stratigraphy: • Study of rock layers • Reconstruct ancient environments and the evolution of ancient landscapes • Correlate rocks of same age that are widely separated geographically • Biostratigraphy, magnetostratigraphy, carbon isotope stratigraphy

  7. http://www.utexas.edu/tmm/npl/rudist2005/images/Rudists.html

  8. www.nhmc.uoc.gr Biostratigraphy

  9. www.museums.org.za/sam/resource/palaeo/cluver/time.htm Karoo Biostratigraphy

  10. Diictodon www.museums.org.za/sam/ Gorgon↓ www.mathematical.com Lystrosaurus↑ www.kjzg.com.cn

  11. Fate of mammal-like reptiles at the end of the Permian: • Dicynodonts – “two dog-teeth” mostly die out except for Lystrosaurus, famous as evidence for continental drift. Herbivores • Gorgonopsians all die out. Top predators of the day. Last gorgonopsian = end of Permian • All had five fingers and toes, sprawling stance. Stance bad for breathing, activity level

  12. www.earthsci.unimelb.edu.au/Thomas Biostratigraphy

  13. Principle of faunal succession • “Fossil species succeed each other in a definite and recognizable order” • Sedimentary rocks represent time: lower = older, upper = newer • Distinctive fossils or assemblages of fossils can be used to correlate widely separated rocks as being the same age. Shelly marine fossils and microfossils, and pollen are usually best – widespread and distinctive.

  14. Some lingo • Species: a population of organisms that can interbreed to produce fertile offspring • Genus: a collection of one or more species • Genera: plural of genus • Gradualism, uniformitarianism: biological and geological changes happen very slowly through time – nothing exciting ever happens Genus species – Tyrannosaurus rex

  15. http://strata.ummp.lsa.umich.edu/jack/ Diversity of marine animals through time

  16. Five major mass extinctions, where 50% or more species go extinct: • Three are of interest to us: • Permo-Triassic, 250 Ma – made way for the ancestors of the dinosaurs (archosaurs) • End Triassic, ~ 200 Ma – took out last of large archosaur competition to the dinosaurs • K-T, 65 Ma, • took out dinos

  17. www.fossilmall.com www.trilobites.info Some organisms that disappeared at the end of the Permian http://members.aol.com/Waucoba5/dv/owensvalleygroupfusulinids2

  18. Proposed causes of dinosaur extinction • Out-competed by smarter, egg-eating mammals • Disease • Falling sea level • Volcanically driven climate change • Asteroid strike! (had been written off by 1980 because no crater had been found)

  19. www.physast.uga.edu/~jss/ 1980 - Walter and Luis Alvarez discover iridium rich clay layer www.geology.ucdavis.edu/~cowen/HistoryofLife/ktbits.gif

  20. http://www.lpl.arizona.edu/SIC/ Location of the Chicxulub crater - site of the K-T impact!

  21. 1 pt XC outline, groups of 3-4 Title 3 or 4 printed names 1) First paragraph – summary of content a) the find b) the interpretation … 2) Second paragraph – questions a) … 3) Third paragraph – affective discussion a)

  22. Chicxulub - “tail of the devil” www.windows.ucar.edu/earth/images/chicxulb.gif

  23. Animation of Chicxulub crater formation

  24. Evidence for K-T impact • World-wide clay layer with iridium, shocked quartz, spherules, and carbon • 65 Ma tsunami deposits ringing the Caribbean • Chicxulub crater

  25. It was a BIG explosion! • Asteroid or comet was 10 km (6 mi) across • Moving at 75,000 km/hr (45,000 mi/hr) • 5 billion times the energy of Hiroshima • World-wide forest fires, tsunamis, acid-rain, year-long “nuclear winter” • At least 75% of all species went extinct, including 90% of all plankton • http://www.lpl.arizona.edu/impacteffects/

  26. Asteroid 1950-DA, March 16, 2880

  27. Unlike the K-T impact that killed the dinos, the cause of the P-T extinction is still the subject of vigorous debate!

  28. Tethys Sea Pangea X http://jan.ucc.nau.edu/~rcb7/ The blue planet, 260 Ma

  29. http://dsc.discovery.com Siberian Traps

  30. Insert pic of AC • Petrified tree? • AC shot from above! With inset of teeth

  31. What fossils tell us about dinosaurs • How they looked - size, shape, skin • How they behaved - diet, locomotion, social life, as parents • Physiology - thermal regulation, growth patterns • History of life - speciation and extinction, relationships among groups • Environmental reconstruction, rock ages geochemistry, paleogeography, interaction between physical and biological worlds

  32. ← Griffin inspired by Protoceratops? ↓ web.ukonline.co.uk/conker/ www.dinoland.dk

  33. www.oum.ox.ac.uk/geolcoll.htm 1677 – Robert Plot publishes first known description of a dinosaur bone. However, he mistakes it for the femur of a giant human!

  34. www.lhl.lib.mo.us/events_exhib/exhibit/ex_paper_dino.shtml 1815 – William Buckland finds Megalosaurus jaw

  35. 1831 1830’s – Meet Meg, the happy water lizard home.uchicago.edu/~shburch/dinopaper.html 1833

  36. 1836 – Gideon Mantell discovers the teeth of Iguanodon www.lhl.lib.mo.us/events_exhib/exhibit/ex_paper_dino.shtml

  37. Iguanodon – notice the sprawling legs 1842 – Richard Owen defines the “Dinosauria”, which translates as “terrible lizards”

  38. Depiction by Owen circa 1850

  39. Benjamin Waterhouse Hawkins’ 1853 dinosaur reconstructions being prepared for display in the Crystal Palace, Hyde Park, London http://www.ric.edu/rpotter/cryspal.html

  40. www.simondevlin.com

  41. www.owen.k12.ky.us/trt/beverly/Megalosaurus_files/frame.htm

  42. http://www.healthstones.com/dinosaurdata/dinodata.html

  43. Nicholas Steno – “Father of stratigraphy” • Second half of the 1600’s • Said fossils were remains of organisms • Principle of Original Horizontality – rock layers laid down horizontally, any deviation from this due to later disturbance • Law of Superposition – lower layers are older, upper layers are more recent

  44. Early 1800’s geology comes alive! • 1795 – Theory of the Earth by James Hutton: how rock layers form, hot inside, old, uniformitarianism, natural selection • 1815 – Geologic map by William Smith: biostratigraphy • 1830-1833 – Principles of Geology by Charles Lyell: stratigraphy • 1859: On the Origin of Species by Darwin

  45. Archaeopteryx – London specimen, found 1861

  46. Taphonomy - the study of how fossils get preserved • How sedimentary rock deposits are formed and how dead animals get in them • Help us understand ancient ecosystems • Helps us understand biases in the fossil record • Some organisms and parts of organisms rarely preserved

  47. www.fossilhut.com Berlin specimen - 1877 www.sonoma.edu/users/g/geist/bio.html Solnhofen specimen - 60’s