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Técnicas de Calidad en el Software Sesión # 10. Maintainability Flexibility Modularity. Portability Reusability Interoperability. Testing. Transition. Operations. Accuracy Confiability Integrity Usability. Good quality software. (Pressman, 1993). Maintainability Flexibility

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good quality software

Maintainability

  • Flexibility
  • Modularity
  • Portability
  • Reusability
  • Interoperability

Testing

Transition

Operations

  • Accuracy
  • Confiability
  • Integrity
  • Usability
Good quality software

(Pressman, 1993)

good quality software3

Maintainability

  • Flexibility
  • Modularity
  • Portability
  • Reusability
  • Interoperability

Testing

Transition

Operations

  • Accuracy
  • Confiability
  • Integrity
  • Usability
Good quality software

(Pressman, 1993)

introduction to usability
Introduction to Usability

Usability:

  • the extent to which a system is easy to use by its target users.
  • the quality of a user’s experience while interacting with a system.
  • the elegance and clarity with which the interaction with a system is designed.
introduction to usability5
Introduction to Usability

Usability evaluation:

  • A systematic procedure to assess the extent to which a system is being accepted and valued by its target users.
  • A means for measuring how well people can use a human-made object or system.
usability testing strategies
Usability Testing Strategies
  • Expert reviews (without users)
      • Cognitive walkthroughs
      • Structured observations
      • Heuristic evaluations
      • Guidelines review
  • Acceptance tests (with real users)
      • Think aloud
      • Experimental studies
      • Survey
usability testing strategies7
Usability Testing Strategies

Cognitive Walkthroughs

  • Involves expert evaluators and no users.
  • Evaluators analyze and document the steps required for users to carry out key tasks, using a system.
  • Evaluators report results and suggestions to design team and developers.
usability testing strategies8
Usability Testing Strategies

Preparing a Cognitive Walkthrough

  • Hire an expert evaluator (usability specialist).
  • Define user(s) profile(s).
  • Provide access to a system prototype.
  • Provide a list of key tasks supported by the system.
usability testing strategies9
Usability Testing Strategies

Preparing a Cognitive Walkthrough

  • Example: Preparing a cognitive walkthrough for Testudo
  • Access: www.testudo.umd.edu
  • Users: (a) Undergrad Students, (b) Grad Students, (c) Student Service Officers, (d) Bursar office employees.
  • Key tasks: (a) login, (b) logout, (c) consult student account, (d) consult student schedule, (e) consult student transcript.
usability testing strategies10
Usability Testing Strategies

Structured Observations

  • Involves expert evaluators and no users.
  • Evaluators analyze and document particular characteristics of a system.
  • Evaluators report results and suggestions to design team and developers.
usability testing strategies11
Usability Testing Strategies

Preparing a Structured Observation

  • Hire an expert evaluator (usability specialist).
  • Define user(s) profile(s).
  • Provide access to a system prototype.
  • A list of key system characteristics will be provided by the evaluator.
usability testing strategies12
Usability Testing Strategies

Preparing a Structured Observation

  • Example: Preparing a structured observation for Testudo
  • Access: www.testudo.umd.edu
  • Users: (a) Undergrad Students, (b) Grad Students, (c) Student Service Officers, (d) Bursar office employees.
  • System characteristics: (a) Information Architecture, (b) Icon Design, (c) Consistency, (d) Security, (e) Interoperability, (d) Graphic Design, (e) Navigation Model.
usability testing strategies13
Usability Testing Strategies

Heuristic Evaluation

  • Involves expert evaluators and no users.
  • Evaluators analyze particular characteristics of a system to determine conformance with pre-defined design principles.
  • Evaluators report results and suggestions to design team and developers.
usability testing strategies14
Usability Testing Strategies

Heuristic Evaluation

Example of pre-defined design principles:

  • Strive for consistency
  • Cater to universal usability
  • Offer informative feedback
  • Design dialogues to yield closure
  • Prevent errors
  • Permit easy reversal of actions
  • Support internal locus of control
  • Reduce short-term memory load

(Shneiderman & Plaisant, 2005)

usability testing strategies15
Usability Testing Strategies

Guidelines Review

  • Involves expert evaluators and no users.
  • Evaluators analyze particular characteristics of a system to determine conformance with pre-defined design guidelines.
  • Evaluators report results and suggestions to design team and developers.
usability testing strategies16
Usability Testing Strategies

Guidelines review

  • Example of Web design guidelines for McKeldin Library staff.
    • Web authoring guidelines
    • Web best practices
    • Web color palette
  • http://www.lib.umd.edu/itd/web/bestpractices/colors.html
usability testing strategies17
Usability Testing Strategies

Guidelines review

  • Example of guidelines for the design and development of digital collections at UMD.
    • Text collections
    • Image collections
    • Video collections
    • Audio collections

(See PDF file)

usability testing strategies18
Usability Testing Strategies

Integrating results from

expert reviews

  • Organize regular meetings with the evaluator.
  • Identify those design suggestions which are relevant and feasible.
  • Include design suggestions in the system prototype.
  • Test the new prototype version with real users.
usability testing strategies19
Usability Testing Strategies

Think Aloud

  • Involves real users.
  • Users are asked to carry out key tasks, using a system.
  • A usability specialist observes and documents users’ reactions to the system.
  • Evaluators report results and suggestions to design team and developers.
usability testing strategies20
Usability Testing Strategies

Preparing a Think Aloud session

  • Design a list of key tasks to be carried out by users.
  • Invite as many representative users as possible.
  • Explain users that the session is about assessing the system usability, not his/her performance.
  • Hire a usability specialist to run the sessions, and to observe and document the users’ reactions to the system.
  • Usability specialists will report results and suggestions to design team and developers.
usability testing strategies21
Usability Testing Strategies

Experimental Studies

Involve:

  • real users
  • objective and measurable criteria
  • one or more system interfaces
  • statistical procedures
  • diverse data sources:
    • log analysis
    • eye-tracking analysis
usability testing strategies22
Usability Testing Strategies

Usability measures in experimental studies:

  • Time to learn
  • Speed of performance
  • Rate of errors by users
  • Retention over time
  • Subjective satisfaction

(Shneiderman & Plaisant, 2005)

usability testing strategies23
Usability Testing Strategies

Survey

  • It is a generally acceptable companion to expert reviews and experimental studies.
  • QUIS: standard survey instrument for usability assessment.
usability testing strategies24
1. System experience

2. Past experience

3. Overall reactions to the system

4. Screen layout

5. Terminology

6. Learning

7. System capabilities

8. Online help

9. Online tutorials

10. Media, I/O

11. Teleconferencing

12. Installation

Usability Testing Strategies

QUIS: Questionnaire for User Interaction

Satisfaction (www.lap.umd.edu)

usability testing strategies25
Usability Testing Strategies
  • QUIS: Questionnaire for User Interaction
  • Satisfaction (www.lap.umd.edu)
  • Pre-defined sections
  • Pre-defined answers
  • Self-perceived user satisfaction
  • Issues:
  • Digital or print format?
  • Response rate
usability testing plan
Usability Testing Plan

A usability testing plan:

  • Includes diverse strategies, with users and expert reviews.
  • Should be part of a system design and development project.
  • Depends on the nature of the system being developed, and the target users.