HUMAN IMPACT on the BIOSPHEREChapter 6-4Charting a course for the Future http://www.claybennett.com/pages2/mistletoe.html
ENVIRONMENTAL PROBLEMS DEAD ZONES ___________________ ___________________ ___________________ ___________________ ___________________ OZONE DEPLETION ACID RAIN GLOBAL WARMING WASTE http://www.acmecompany.com/stock_thumbnails/13808.greenhouse_effect_2.jpg
DEAD ZONES REMEMBER ! When an ecosystem receives a LARGE input of limiting nutrient (ie., fertilizer runoff) the population increases dramatically = ___________ ALGAL BLOOM
Gulf of Mexico Dead Zone The DEADZONE forms each April, generally grows throughout the summer, reaching a peak in late July. http://www.ncat.org/nutrients/hypoxia/hypoxia.html
Gulf of Mexico Dead Zone http://serc.carleton.edu/microbelife/topics/deadzone/index.html At its peak, the nearly lifeless water can span 5,000 to 8,000-plus square miles, an area almost the size of New Jersey
DEAD ZONESHow do we HELP? • Use modern technology and • “green” farming methods to: • Decrease agricultural fertilizer use • Decrease runoff of agricultural waste
http://www.planetguide.net/book/chapter_5/ozone_layer.html OZONE LAYER Our atmosphere between 20-50 km contains high concentrations of ____________ which protect us from the sun’s harmful ______________ radiation. OZONE (O3) ultra-violet http://pubweb.bnl.gov/users/xujun/www/bnl/ozone_layer_1.gif
EFFECTS OF UV RADIATION Skin cancer __________________________________ ________________________ of skin __________________________________ Reduces ________________ Disrupts __________________ in oceans Premature aging Cataracts/blindness crop yield food chains Click here to see a movie about the effects of UV radiation WMV, 618K
WHAT WE KNOW Scientists have been monitoring the ____________ of ozone in our atmosphere and have discovered a hole in the ozone layer over ____________. depletion Antarctica Click here to see a movie about the ozone hole WMV, 616K http://ozonewatch.gsfc.nasa.gov/facts/hole.html
The annual ozone "hole“ over Antarctica has occurred during the Antarctic Spring (October) since the early 1980s. Rather than being an actual hole through the layer, the ozone hole is a large area with extremely low amounts of ozone. Ozone levels fall by over 60% during the worst years. http://ozonewatch.gsfc.nasa.gov/facts/hole.html
Ozone depletion is a global issue NOT just a problem at the South Pole. Research has shown that ozone depletion also occurs over North America, Europe, Asia, and much of Africa, Australia, and South America. Over the U.S., ozone levels have fallen 5-10%, depending on the season. http://home.casema.nl/daveduijn/globe2.gif
What’s the cause of Ozone Depletion? Chlorofluorocarbon molecules _______ released from air conditioners, aerosol spray cans, fire extinguishers, and industry ________________ (CFC’s) destroy ozone http://www.atm.ch.cam.ac.uk/tour/part3.html
OZONE DEPLETION HOW DO WE HELP? MONTREAL PROTOCOL 1987- the _______________________ committed signing nations (including USA) to a ____________ in the use of CFCs and other ozone-depleting substances. CFC production was _________ after 1995 in the developed countries, and later in developing countries. Today, over 180 countries have ratified the treaty. REDUCTION banned
THAT’S WHY . . . http://www.roundrocktexas.gov/images/spray_cans_large.jpg AEROSOL _____________spray cans no longer contain CFC propellants. Gases in ___________________ and _____________ are collected and recycled. AIR CONDITIONERS refrigerators
OZONE DEPLETIONHow do we help? We can't make enough ozone to replace what's been destroyed, but provided that we stop producing ozone-depleting substances, computer models predict natural ozone production reactions should return the ozone layer to normal levels by about 2050. This is the first example of different countries getting together on an environmental issue, agreeing on what to do, doing something, and seeing a positive effect http://www.gifs.net/image/Words/Wow/Wow_rotates/4031
ACID RAIN What’s the cause?________________________ BURNING FOSSIL FUELS Chemical Transformation Nitric acid Sulfuric acid Condensation Emissions to Atmosphere Nitrogen oxides Sulfur dioxide Dry Fallout Precipitation Acid rain, fog, snow, and mist particulates, gases Industry Transportation Ore smelting Power generation Sulfur oxides Nitrogen oxides Releases _______________ and ________________ into the atmosphere that react with water toproduce ACID RAIN.
http://www.robl.w1.com/Pix/C900991.jpg http://www.geocities.com/kamil_pollutionpage/AcidRain.htm http://www.abc.net.au/quantum/scripts99/9905/img/asthma.jpg http://www.scienceacross.org/media/samplingforacidrainNOAAedSAW.jpg
ACID RAIN EFFECTS • damages buildings and statues • damages forests • kills fish • reduces biodiversity • causes illness & premature death from heart & lung disorders like asthma and bronchitis
ACID RAIN Develop a National energy policy that emphasizes use of alternative renewable energy sources HOW DO WE HELP? Cut down on activities that use fossil fuels conserve electricity drive less Drive automobiles with increased fuel efficiency OR run on alternative fuels Recycle (uses less energy than starting from scratch)
GREENHOUSE EFFECT suitable for life atmosphere Temperatures of Earth remain within a range ______________ because the _____________ acts as a natural _________________ blanket. insulating http://wwwstatic.bayareawritingproject.org/images/bawp41/earthAtmosphereIMG.gif
GREENHOUSE EFFECT Carbon dioxide (CO2 ) Atmospheric gases such as ___________________ ___________________ ___________________ ___________________ NORMALLY trap heat energy from the sun like a greenhouse = _____________________ methane water vapor CFC’s Greenhouse effect http://www.acmecompany.com/stock_thumbnails/13808.greenhouse_effect_2.jpg
GLOBAL WARMING- Is it real? Some people say that the Earth hascycles of warmer/cooler climate change and that this is just part of that cycle. Most scientists believe that the increase inglobal temperatures is the result of humanactivities that have increased the amount ofCO2 and other greenhouse gases in theatmosphere
In 2007 in Paris a U.N.- backed panel of international scientists issued a major announcement on climate change stating that: 1. "warming of the climate system is unequivocal“ 2. There is a 90% probability the cause “man- made”. Either way… our planet is getting warmer!
FACTS WE KNOW Global mean surface temperatures have increased 0.5-1.0°F since the late 19th century. The 20th century's ten warmest years have occurred in the last 15 years of this century. http://content.answers.com/main/content/wp/en/thumb/8/87/280px-Instrumental_Temperature_Record.png
FACTS WE KNOW The snow cover in the Northern Hemisphere and floating ice in the Arctic Ocean have decreased. Graph & glacier pix: http://nsidc.org/sotc/glacier_balance.html polar bears: http://www.metro.co.uk/news/article.html?in_article_id=35720&in_page_id=34
FACTS WE KNOW Greenhouse gases in the atmosphere have increased steadily. http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Image:Major_greenhouse_gas_trends.png
GLOBAL WARMING WHAT’S the CAUSE? • Burning solid waste, fossil fuels (oil, natural gas, and coal), wood and wood products • Production and transport of fossil fuels • Decomposition of organic wastes in landfills • Animal sources (methane) • Deforestation(trees remove CO2 from atmosphere)
What’s so bad about warming up a little? We’re freezing here in S.D.!
What’s so bad about warming up a little? http://healthandenergy.com/images/global2.gif Cartoon from Brookings Register Coastal flooding
http://www.claybennett.com/pages/ocean_temps.html What’s so bad about warming up a little? Changes in Gulf Stream http://zfacts.com/metaPage/lib/Atlantic_conveyor.jpg
What’s so bad about warming up a little? http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Hurricane_Katrina More severe storms http://i.a.cnn.net/cnn/2005/WEATHER/08/25/tropical.storm/story.katrina.915p.jpg
What’s so bad about warming up a little? Weather extremes http://www.cactus-art.biz/note-book/Dictionary/aaa_Dictionary_pictures/drought.jpg Heat waves and drought Brookings Register
What’s so bad about warming up a little? http://www.metro.co.uk/news/article.html?in_article_id=35720&in_page_id=34 Changing habitats means loss of species
What’s the Kyoto Accord got to do with it? The Kyoto Accord is an agreement, aimed at reducing global warming that asks participants to __________ their ________________ emissions to a percentage of their 1990 emission levels _____________. REDUCE GREENHOUSE GAS by 2012
PROBLEMS WITH the KYOTO ACCORD (The US has not ratified this agreement) In 1998-Clinton administration signs the Kyoto Accord committing the United States to a 7% reduction in carbon dioxide and other greenhouse gas emissions from 1990 emissions levels, to be achieved between the years 2008 and 2012. 2001- Bush administration withdrew the U.S. signature, claiming that the treaty was "fatally flawed". 2008- Australia (last major nation hold out) signed 160 nations have now agreed (not US)
PROBLEMS WITH the KYOTO ACCORD ALL countries not required to reduce emissions equally 7% for the US, 6% for Japan, 0% for Russia, Developing nations don’t have to reduce emissions at all India and China, which have ratified the protocol, are not required to reduce carbon emissions under the present agreement despite their relatively large populations. Developed nations (like USA) can meet required reductions by purchasing emission reductions from elsewhere and funding developing countries for climate related studies, projects, and technology
KYOTO is “OLD NEWS”! Standards set by Kyoto will expire in 2012. United Nations Meeting on Climate Change Met in December 2009 - Copenhagen, Denmark http://unfccc.int/meetings/items/2654.php
Current Status • OBJECTIVE: to keep the maximum temperature rise to below 2 degrees Celsius; • the commitment to list developed country emission reduction targets and mitigation action by developing countries for 2020; • Proposed $ 30 billion short-term funding for immediate action till 2012 and $100 billion annually by 2020 in long-term financing (still needs to be approved by countries) • The challenge now is to turn what is agreed into something that is legally binding in Mexico one year from now.
http://www.gifanimations.com/animation/MenuSelection/1/56 What is a CARBON FOOTPRINT? CARBON FOOTPRINT A ____________________ = the total set of GHG (greenhouse gas) emissions caused directly and indirectly by an individual, organization, event or product http://www.nature.org/initiatives/climatechange/calculator/
The US is no longer the #1 CO2 emitter http://www.chrismadden.co.uk/eco/china-carbon-footprint.html but . . . we contribute to the problem.
http://matadornetwork.cachefly.net/bravenewtraveler.com/docs//wp-content/images/posts/20080418-planet.jpghttp://matadornetwork.cachefly.net/bravenewtraveler.com/docs//wp-content/images/posts/20080418-planet.jpg Even if you don’t “believe” in global warming . . . Even if countries can’t agree on emission levels … we should still work to reduce our emissions of global warming gases BECAUSE . . .
http://www.inkcinct.com.au/Web/CARTOONS/2005/2005-379C--last-fossil-fuel.gifhttp://www.inkcinct.com.au/Web/CARTOONS/2005/2005-379C--last-fossil-fuel.gif THINGS WE DO TO “FIX GLOBAL WARMING” make sense anyway! Fossil fuels are a limited resource… eventually they will be gone!
THINGS WE DO TO “FIX GLOBAL WARMING” make sense anyway! http://healthandenergy.com/global_warming_cartoons.htm Our supply of fossil fuels is dependent on countries that are not “friendly” to the U.S.
THINGS WE DO TO “FIX GLOBAL WARMING” make sense anyway! Brookings Register Drilling for and transporting fossil fuels has negative environmental consequences
THINGS WE DO TO “FIX GLOBAL WARMING” make sense anyway! Drilling and transporting fossil fuels has negative environmental consequences Brookings Register
THINGS WE DO TO “FIX GLOBAL WARMING” make sense anyway! Images from: http://www.cartoonstock.com/directory/R/Renewable_energy.asp Innovation and alternative energy technologies for automobiles and power generation are good for our economy
GLOBAL WARMING Develop a National energy policy that emphasizes use of alternative renewable energy sources HOW DO WE HELP? Watch your carbon footprint Cut down on activities that use fossil fuels Drive automobiles with increased fuel efficiency OR run on alternative fuels Cut down on CO2 emissions (with or without the Kyoto accord) Recycle (uses less energy than starting from scratch) Reduce deforestation (plants use CO2)