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## PHYS 1444 – Section 02 Review #2

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**PHYS 1444 – Section 02Review #2**November 9, 2011 Ian Howley PHYS 1444 Ian Howley**1444 Test 2 Eq. Sheet**Terminal voltage Magnetic field from long straight wire Resistors in series Ampére’s Law Resistors in parallel Force on current carrying wire Force on moving charge Torque on a current loop Magnetic dipole moment And energy Biot-Savart Law solenoid PHYS 1444 Ian Howley**Review Chapter 26**Terminal voltage Resistors in series Resistors in parallel Kirchoff’s rules (example) RC circuits PHYS 1444 Ian Howley**26-2 Resistors in Series and in Parallel**A series connection has a single path from the battery, through each circuit element in turn, then back to the battery. The current through each resistor is the same; the voltage drop depends on the resistance. The sum of the voltage drops across the resistors equals the battery voltage: PHYS 1444 Ian Howley**26-2 Resistors in Series and in Parallel**A parallel connection splits the current; the voltage across each resistor is the same: PHYS 1444 Ian Howley**26-2 Resistors in Series and in Parallel**Conceptual Example 26-3: An illuminating surprise. A 100-W, 120-V lightbulb and a 60-W, 120-V lightbulb are connected in two different ways as shown. In each case, which bulb glows more brightly? Ignore change of filament resistance with current (and temperature). Solution: a.) Each bulb sees the full 120V drop, as they are designed to do, so the 100-W bulb is brighter. b.) P = V2/R, so at constant voltage the bulb dissipating more power will have lower resistance. In series, then, the 60-W bulb – whose resistance is higher – will be brighter. (More of the voltage will drop across it than across the 100-W bulb). PHYS 1444 Ian Howley**26-2 Resistors in Series and in Parallel**Conceptual Example 26-6: Bulb brightness in a circuit. The circuit shown has three identical light bulbs, each of resistance R. (a) When switch S is closed, how will the brightness of bulbs A and B compare with that of bulb C? (b) What happens when switch S is opened? Use a minimum of mathematics in your answers. Solution: a. When S is closed, the bulbs in parallel have half the resistance of the series bulb. Therefore, the voltage drop across them is smaller. Bulbs A and B will be equally bright, but much dimmer than C. b. With switch S open, no current flows through A, so it is dark. B and C are now equally bright, and each has half the voltage across it, so C is somewhat dimmer than it was with the switch closed, and B is brighter. PHYS 1444 Ian Howley**26-2 Resistors in Series and in Parallel**Example 26-8: Analyzing a circuit.(a) How much current is drawn from the battery? (b) what is the current in the 10 Ω resistor a.) Overall resistance is 10.3 Ω. The current is 9.0 V/10.3 Ω = 0.87 A b.) The voltage across the 4.8 Ω is 0.87*4.8=4.2V, so the current in the 10 Ω is I=V/R=4.2/10=0.42A PHYS 1444 Ian Howley**Using Kirchhoff’s Rules**• Determine the flow of currents at the junctions. • Write down the current equation based on Kirchhoff’s 1st rule (conservtion of charge) at various junctions. • Choose closed loops in the circuit • Write down the potential in each interval of the junctions, keeping the sign properly. • Write down the potential equations for each loop (conservation of energy). • Solve the equations for unknowns. PHYS 1444 Ian Howley**26-3 Kirchhoff’s Rules**Example 26-9: Using Kirchhoff’s rules. Calculate the currents I1, I2, and I3 in the three branches of the circuit in the figure. Solution: You will have two loop rules and one junction rule (there are two junctions but they both give the same rule, and only 2 of the 3 possible loop equations are independent). Algebraic manipulation will giveS I1 = -0.87 A, I2 = 2.6 A, and I3 = 1.7 A. PHYS 1444 Ian Howley**Review Chapter 27**Magnets, magnetic fields Force on current carrying wire due to external field Force on moving charge due to external field Torque on a current loop Magnetic dipole moment and energy of dipole Hall effect PHYS 1444 Ian Howley**Electron’s path in a uniform magnetic field. An electron**travels at a speed of 2.0x107m/s in a plane perpendicular to a 0.010-T magnetic field. Describe its path. Example 27 – 4 What is the formula for the centripetal force? Since the magnetic field is perpendicular to the motion of the electron, the magnitude of the magnetic force is Since the magnetic force provides the centripetal force, we can establish an equation with the two forces Solving for r PHYS 1444 Ian Howley**Conceptual Example 27-10: Velocity selector**Some electronic devices and experiments need a beam of charged particles all moving at nearly the same velocity. This can be achieved using both a uniform electric field and a uniform magnetic field, arranged so they are at right angles to each other. Particles of charge q pass through slit S1 If the particles enter with different velocities, show how this device “selects” a particular velocity, and determine what this velocity is. Figure 27-21: A velocity selector: if v = E/B, the particles passing through S1 make it through S2. Solution: Only the particles whose velocities are such that the magnetic and electric forces exactly cancel will pass through both slits. We want qE = qvB, so v = E/B. PHYS 1444 Ian Howley COULD I ADD GRAVITY TO THIS PROBLEM?**Torque on a Current Loop**• So what would be the magnitude of this torque? • What is the magnitude of the force on the section of the wire with length a? • Fa=IaB • The moment arm of the coil is b/2 • So the total torque is the sum of the torques by each of the forces • Where A=ab is the area of the coil • What is the total net torque if the coil consists of N loops of wire? • If the coil makes an angle q w/ the field PHYS 1444 Ian Howley**Review Chapter 28**Magnetic field from long straight wire Magnetic force for two parallel wires Ampére’s Law Ex. 28-4 solenoid Biot-Savart Law PHYS 1444 Ian Howley**28-4 Ampère’s Law**Example 28-6: Field inside and outside a wire. A long straight cylindrical wire conductor of radius R carries a current I of uniform current density in the conductor. Determine the magnetic field due to this current at (a) points outside the conductor (r > R) and (b) points inside the conductor (r < R). Assume that r, the radial distance from the axis, is much less than the length of the wire. (c) If R = 2.0 mm and I = 60 A, what is B at r = 1.0 mm, r = 2.0 mm, and r = 3.0 mm? PHYS 1444 Ian Howley**Solution: We choose a circular path around the wire; if the**wire is very long the field will be tangent to the path. a. The enclosed current is the total current; this is the same as a thin wire. B = μ0I/2πr. b. Now only a fraction of the current is enclosed within the path; if the current density is uniform the fraction of the current enclosed is the fraction of area enclosed: Iencl = Ir2/R2. Substituting and integrating gives B = μ0Ir/2πR2. c. 1 mm is inside the wire and 3 mm is outside; 2 mm is at the surface (so the two results should be the same). Substitution gives B = 3.0 x 10-3 T at 1.0 mm, 6.0 x 10-3 T at 2.0 mm, and 4.0 x 10-3 T at 3.0 mm. PHYS 1444 Ian Howley**Suspending a wire with current. A horizontal wire carries a**current I1=80A DC. A second parallel wire 20cm below it must carry how much current I2 so that it doesn’t fall due to the gravity? The lower has a mass of 0.12g per meter of length. Example 28 – 2 Downward Which direction is the gravitational force? This force must be balanced by the magnetic force exerted on the wire by the first wire. Solving for I2 PHYS 1444 Ian Howley**Solenoid Magnetic Field**• Use Ampere’s law to determine the magnetic field inside a long solenoid • Let’s choose the path abcd, far away from the ends • The field outside the solenoid is negligible, and the internal field is perpendicular to the end paths, so these integrals also are 0 • So the sum becomes: • Thus Ampere’s law gives us PHYS 1444 Ian Howley**Ch 25**• Current flows through a resistor A) with no direction since it is not a vector. B) from any potential to any different potential. C) from high potential to low potential. D) from low potential to high potential. E) cannot be determined • Which of the following cylindrical wires has the largest resistance? All wires are made of the same material. A) a wire of length L and diameter 2d B) a wire of length L and diameter d/2 C) a wire of length L/2 and diameter d D) a wire of length L and diameter d E) a wire of length L/2 and diameter 2d PHYS 1444 Ian Howley**Ch 26**• Three identical resistors are connected in series to a battery. If the current of 12 A flows from the battery, how much current flows through any one of the resistors? A) 12 A B) 4 A C)36 A D) 24 A E) zero Fig. 26-7 shows a junction with currents labeled I1 to I6. Which of the following statements is correct? A) I1 + I3 = I6 + I4 B)I4 + I3 = I6 C) I1 + I2 = I6 + I4 D) I2 = I6 + I4 E) I6 + I5 = I1 PHYS 1444 Ian Howley**Ch 27**• A current carrying loop of wire lies flat on a table top. When viewed from above, the current moves around the loop in a counterclockwise sense. What is the direction of the magnetic field caused by this current, outside the loop? The magnetic field A) circles the loop in a clockwise direction. B) circles the loop in a counterclockwise direction. C) points straight up. D) points straight down. E) points toward the east. A wire is carrying current vertically downward. What is the direction of the force due to Earth's magnetic field on the wire? A)horizontally towards the north B)horizontally towards the south C) horizontally towards the east D) horizontally towards the west E) vertically upward PHYS 1444 Ian Howley**Ch 28**A high power line carrying 1000 A generates what magnetic field at the ground, 10 m away? A) 3.2 × 10-6 T B) 4.7 × 10-6 T C)6.4 × 10-6 T D)2.0 × 10-5 T E) 5.6 × 10-5 T Two long parallel wires carry currents of 20 A and 5.0 A in opposite directions. The wires are separated by 0.20 m. What is the magnetic field midway between the two wires? A) 1.0 × 10-5 T B) 2.0 × 10-5 T C) 3.0 × 10-5 T D)4.0 × 10-5 T E) 5.0 × 10-5 T PHYS 1444 Ian Howley**Ch 29**• The three loops of wire shown in Fig. 29-1 are all subject to the same uniform magnetic field that does not vary with time. Loop 1 oscillates back and forth as the bob in a pendulum, loop 2 rotates about a vertical axis, and loop 3 oscillates up and down at the end of a spring. Which loop, or loops, will have an induced emf? A) Loop 1 B) Loop 2 C) Loop 3 D) Loops 1 and 3 E) Loops 2 and 3 A rectangular coil lies flat on a horizontal surface. A bar magnet is held above the center of the coil with its north pole pointing down. If the magnet is dropped from this position what is the direction of the induced current in the coil? A) There is no current in the coil. B) counterclockwise C) clockwise D)Not enough information is provided. PHYS 1444 Ian Howley