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Material Handling and Storage. November 8, 2002. Objectives. Recognize material handling hazards Manual material handling Industrial trucks Conveyors (Cranes will be addressed later) Become familiar with basic methods of controlling these hazards . Hazards.

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  • Recognize material handling hazards
    • Manual material handling
    • Industrial trucks
    • Conveyors
    • (Cranes will be addressed later)
  • Become familiar with basic methods of controlling these hazards


  • 600,000 overexertion injuries, 27% of all lost- workday cases
    • 370,000 injuries caused by lifting
    • 93,000 pushing/pulling
    • Strains and sprains from loads that are too heavy or large
    • Fractures , cuts and bruises from improper storage


general work practices
General Work Practices
  • Get help for large loads
  • When blocking a raised load:
    • Keep hands from underneath before releasing load
    • Use blocking materials of adequate strength
    • Look for cracks, splintered pieces, rounded corners, etc.
  • Attach handles or holder to loads
  • PPE
    • Gloves, eye protection, safety boots (for heavy loads)


mechanical material handling
Mechanical Material Handling
  • Do not overload equipment
  • Refer to equipment rated capacity
  • General forklift procedures
    • Center load on forks and close to mast
    • Do not overload
    • Do not add extra weight to counterbalance
    • Travel with load at lowest position


materials storage
Materials Storage
  • Stacked loads correctly piled and cross-tiered
  • Stored material must not create hazard
  • Areas free of accumulated material
  • In buildings, no stored materials within 6 feet of hoist ways or 10 feet of exterior building walls
  • Store non-compatible material separately


materials storage7
Materials Storage
  • Employees in silos, hopers or tanks equipped with lifeline and safety harness
  • Bound material stacked, on racks, blocked or interlocked to keep it from sliding, falling or collapsing
  • Don't exceed load capacity for the structure
    • Post load limits
  • Stacking height
    • Mark walls or posts to indicate maximum height


lumber and brick storage
Lumber and Brick Storage
  • Lumber
    • Maximum stack height
      • 16 feet (manual handling)
      • 20 feet (forklift)
    • Remove nails from used lumber
    • Stacks stable and self-supporting
  • Bricks
    • Maximum 7 feet high
    • Above 4 feet, taper stacks 2 inches per foot


block and bag storage
Block and Bag Storage
  • Masonry blocks
    • Above 6 feet , taper stacks 2 block per tier
  • Bags and bundles
    • Stack in interlocking rows
    • Step back at least every 10 layers
    • Remove from top of stack first
    • Keep baled paper and rags at least 10 inches from walls, ceilings, or sprinkler heads


box and drum storage
Box and Drum Storage
  • Boxed materials
    • Hold in place using cross-ties, or shrink plastic
  • Drums, barrels, kegs
    • Stacked symmetrically
    • If stored on side, block bottom tiers to prevent rolling
    • If stacked on ends, use planks, pallets, etc. between each tier
  • Block cylindrical material (bars, poles, etc.)
  • Use bins or shelves for materials that cannot be stacked


manual lifting
Manual Lifting
  • Avoid manual lifting when possible
  • Limit vertical lifting (knuckle-to-shoulder height)
  • Be in good physical shape
  • Plan the lifting operation
  • Get a good grip
  • Keep the load close to the body
  • Do not twist or bend sideways
  • Get help for large or heavy loads


manual lifting12
Manual Lifting
  • Recommendations for specific tasks
    • Grasp opposite corners on boxes, cartons & sacks
    • Use mechanical assistance for barrels and drums
    • Wear leather gloves when handling sheet metal
    • Plate glass
      • Carry with bottom edge in gloved palm, other hand on top edge
      • Never carry plate glass under the arm
    • Use a team for long objects


2 wheeled hand trucks
2-wheeled hand trucks
  • Tip load forward and slip tongue underneath
  • Keep center of gravity low
  • Let the truck carry the load - don't lean it too far
  • Walk forward - keep load height low enough to see
  • Secure bulky items to the truck
  • Use specialty equipment
    • Drums
    • Appliances


  • Hazards
    • Nip points (rollers, near frame)
    • Material may fall from conveyor
    • Persons may be caught in the conveyor
  • Controls
    • Emergency stop button or pull cord
      • Must be reset after use
      • Never ride on conveyor
    • Guards over aisles or

work areas

    • Screw conveyors covered, interlocked


powered industrial trucks forklifts
Powered Industrial Trucks (Forklifts)
  • 100 annual deaths, 95,000 injured
  • Cause of fatality:
    • 42% crushed by vehicle tipping
    • 25% crushed between vehicle and surface
    • 11% crushed between two vehicles
    • 10% struck or run over by vehicle
  • 8% struck by falling material
  • 4% fall from platform or forks
  • 2% accidental activation of controls


forklift fatalities 1992 1996
Forklift Fatalities, 1992-1996











powered industrial trucks forklifts18
Powered Industrial Trucks (Forklifts)
  • ANSI Approved
    • Identifying label
  • Owner modification
    • Only with mfg. Approval
    • New label required
  • Front-end attachments
    • Should have new label


classes of forklifts
Classes of forklifts
  • Class 1CElectric Motor, Sit-down Rider, Counter-Balanced Trucks (Solid and Pneumatic Tires)
  • Class 2CElectric Motor Narrow Aisle Trucks (Solid Tires)
  • Class 3CElectric Motor Hand Trucks or Hand/Rider Trucks (Solid Tires)
  • Class 4CInternal Combustion Engine Trucks (Solid Tires)
  • class 5CInternal Combustion Engine Trucks (Pneumatic Tires)
  • Class 6CElectric and Internal Combustion Engine Tractors (Solid and Pneumatic Tires)
  • Class 7CRough Terrain Forklift Trucks (Pneumatic Tires)


trucks for hazardous locations
Trucks for Hazardous Locations
  • D--Diesel , minimum safeguards against fire hazards
  • DS--Diesel-powered with additional safeguards
  • DY--Diesel-powered, no electrical equipment
  • E--Electrically powered, minimum safeguards
  • ES--additional safeguards
  • EE--completely enclosed electrical equipment
  • EX--for atmospheres with flammable vapors or dusts
  • G--Gasoline-powered with minimum safeguards
  • GS--additional safeguards
  • LP--similar to the G, but liquefied petroleum gas fuel
  • LPS-- additional safeguards


hazardous examples
Hazardous Examples
  • OSHA specifies which type of truck is acceptable for hazardous locations:
  • Examples
    • Flammable gases or liquids handled, but contained
      • DS, EE, EX only
    • Suspended combustible dusts
      • EX only


powered industrial truck safety
Powered Industrial Truck Safety
  • Fuel - liquid or gas
    • Handled in accord with NFPA standards
  • Batteries
    • Specially designated battery charging area
    • Spill control, fire protection, ventilation, etc.
    • Mechanical battery handling equipment
    • No smoking
  • Trucks and Railroad cars
    • Brakes set, wheel chocks (trucks)
    • Wheel stops (railroad cars)


powered industrial truck operation
Powered Industrial Truck Operation
  • Never drive toward a person standing in front of a fixed object
  • No person under any elevated portion
  • Do not place arms or legs in the mast or outside the truck
  • Unattended trucks must be shut off with lowered load
  • Set brakes and wheel blocks when loading vehicles (trucks, rail cars, etc.)
  • Maintain headroom under lights, sprinkler systems, etc.
  • Use overhead guard to protect from falling objects
  • Use load backrest when necessary


powered industrial truck operation24
Powered Industrial Truck Operation
  • Cross railroad tacks on the diagonal
  • Sound horn at blind intersections
  • Back down ramps, drive forward up ramps
  • Operate at safe speed, avoid quick turns
  • Personnel on loading platform must have an emergency shut- off for truck power
  • Secure dockboards and bridge plates
  • Loads must be stable and safely arranged
  • Disconnect battery before repairing electrical system
  • Replacement parts must be equivalent to original


forklift training
Forklift Training
  • New OSHA standard, 1919.178(l)
    • Effective March 1, 1999 - training required by Dec. 1, 1999
  • OSHA specified topics
    • Stability, operation, etc.
  • Formal training program
  • Initial training before use
  • Refresher training (based on observations)
  • Employer must certify


forklift training26
Forklift Training

Stability Triangle:

Vehicle Center of

Gravity (Unloaded)



Center of Gravity

of Vehicle and

Maximum Load




1. When the vehicle is loaded, the combined center of gravity (CG) shifts toward line B-C. Theoretically the maximum load will result in the CG at the line B-C. In actual practice, the combined CG should never be at line B-C.

2. The addition of additional counterweight will cause the truck CG to shift toward point A and result in a truck that is less stable laterally.


forklift training27
Forklift Training

Stability Triangle

Load CG

Load CG




(Line of Action)

Combined CG

Combined CG




(Line of Action)

Truck CG

Truck CG

This vehicle is unstable and

will continue to tip over

The vehicle is stable