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Lecture 13
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  1. Lecture 13 • Single Knit Machines (plain)

  2. Main Products • Single Jersey • Pique • Locast • Honey comb • Pique fleece • Two thread fleece • Feed stripes

  3. Single Knit Machine Working • Single bed of needle • Only cylinders • Needles and sinkers • High speed • Wider width • Most common • Easy to handle

  4. Double Knit Machines • Cylinder and Dial • Two bed of needles • No sinker • Double side knitting

  5. Sub types • Interlock • Rib • Double jersey (interchangeable)

  6. Interlock • Highly flexible fabric • Can adopt any body shape • Used for under garments • Soft hand feel

  7. Lecture 13 Knitting Accessories • Compressed air • Lubricants • Air conditioned • Yarn storage • Fabric Storage

  8. Compressed Air • For • Cleaning • Oiling • Fluff removing

  9. Parameters of Compressed Air • Cool • Dry • Required pressure • Required quantity

  10. Sources • Compressors • Piston based • Screw Base

  11. Cooling Process • Refrigerator technology • Cooling towers Best is refrigerator technology

  12. Lubricants • Main purpose is lubrication to reduce friction between parts of machines, particular between needles and cams

  13. Parameters of Lubricants • High lubrication • Easy wash during wet processing • No smell • No stain Normally called white oil Supplied by all big companies Some chemical manufacturers add some auxiliaries in it

  14. Air Conditioning of the hall • Main objectives: • Low temperature to keep machines cool • Control of fluff • Healthy environment • Strength consistency of yarn • Smooth running of machines • Less wear and tear of machine • High speed of machines • Less breakage of needle and sinkers

  15. Storage • To avoid mixing • Better look after • Less wastage in transportation • Easy to locate • Controlled inventory

  16. Lect 14 Knitting Calculations

  17. Lecture 15 Fleece Fabric • A fabric made by sheep wool, soft warm • A fabric soft , warm bulky • Generally used to: • Protection from cold • Sweat absorption (sweat shirt) • Baby clothes

  18. Fleece --- • A fabric knitted with two types of yarn. Fine yarn is on front side and course yarn on back side. In most of cases fine yarn is 100% cotton while course yarn is P/C 50:50 • Normal combination and fiber ratio: • 30/16, 20/10, 26/12 etc • PC/C, C/PC

  19. Types of Fleece • Two thread fleece • Three Thread Fleece

  20. Two thread Fleece • Very rare • Was popular when three thread fleece were not common • Generally not liked due to impassion of course yarn on front side • Low quality product

  21. Conti--- • Made on single jersey machines • Maximum medium weight, since very course yarn difficult to use • Long loop is difficult

  22. Cam Arrangement • On Fleece fabric.docthree needle track machine:

  23. CHARACTERISTICS OF TWO THEAD FLEECE • Light to medium weight • Double impact on front side, particularly in case of different fibers • No good brushing possible due to short length of loop

  24. Three Thread Fleece • Made on fleece machines • High grammage is possible( 500 GSM) • High brushing due to long loop on back side • Maximum course yarn is possible ( up to 10 count) on back side • Very common in use • Fleece machine guage is 16 or 18

  25. Yarn • C/PC • PC/C 30/16, 22/12/ 20/10

  26. Cam Arrangement

  27. Fiber Percentage • Calculation Method • Example: • Front yarn 30s • 100% cotton • Back yarn 16 s 50:50 P/C • Consumption ratio • Front Two kgs • Back one kg

  28. Conti--- • Total consumption three kgs • Calculation: • front yarn 2 kgs 100 % cotton • Back yarn 1 kg ( ½ Kg polyester and ½ kg cotton • Total Cotton consumed 2 + 0.5 =2.5 Kgs • Total polyester consumed ½ kg • Ratio: cotton= 2.5/3*100= 83.33% • Polyester= 0.53*100=16.66% • Such ratio is normally called 80:20 Fleece

  29. Main characteristics of Three Thread Fleece • Highly absorbent • High weight is possible • Can use entirely different yarn on both sides( even dyed yarn) • Pattern is possible ( diagonal stripes etc) • Very common in use

  30. Fleece problems and their remedies • Uneven loop – control yarn supply • Loop stretch– control cam tension • Needle line on front side • Wales thickness variation on front side due to fluff contamination between the needles, needs regular cleaning, more cleaning is required due to course yarn

  31. C-- • Poor brushing–due to high TPI yarn– use low TPI • Dyeing variation due to different percentage of yarn… calculate exact % by using Skelton test • Steak problem after dyeing due to heavy weight fabric--- use anti creasing agents in dyeing

  32. C--- • High shrinkage --- use compactor or tumble dryers

  33. Other types of fleece • Sherpa fleece --- brushed and washed to get balls • Polar fleece ---- loops on both sides also brushed on both side

  34. Loop knits • Terry fabric to knitted terry towel

  35. Good luck, May Almighty bless you

  36. Knitting Costing Objectives of the session: To make participants familiar with the basic terms of costing To create an understanding about the costing methods To develop a skill to do costing in a Knitting department

  37. Basic Cost Terms and Concepts • Different Costs for Different Purposes • Fixed and Variable cost • Cost Drivers • Direct and Indirect Cost • Controlled and Uncontrolled cost • Direct material • Direct Labour

  38. Continue… • Manufacturing Overhead • Indirect material • Indirect labour • Other Manufacturing Cost • Service department • Overtime Premium • Idle Time • Conversion Cost

  39. Cost Flow in a Manufacturing Company • Direct Material • Direct Labour • Manufacturing Overhead

  40. Economic Characteristics of Cost • Opportunity Cost • Out of Pocket Cost • Sunk Cost • Differential Cost • Incremental Cost • Margin Cost • Average Cost

  41. Cost and Benefit Information

  42. Job Oriented Cost System • Product Costing

  43. Types of Product Costing • Job-Order Costing System • Process Costing System

  44. Activity Based Costing (ABC) • Stage One Overhead Costs are assigned to activities • Overhead Cost are assigned to production job

  45. Knitting Cost • Process Cost • Job-Order Cost

  46. Process Cost • Material • Labour

  47. Material • Direct • Yarn • Lubricants • Machine Accessories • Needles • Energy

  48. Continue… • Indirect • Engineering Department • Other Service department

  49. Labour • Direct labour • Worker • Technical people • Managers Accounts

  50. Indirect labour • Marketing people • Accounts People • Finance People • Others