John Adams&The Growth of Political Parties 1797 - 1801
The First Political Parties • Causes • Different philosophies of government • Conflicting interpretations of the Constitution • Different economic & regional interests • Disagreement over foreign affairs
Hamilton v Jefferson Federalists Democratic -Republicans • Led by Alexander Hamilton • Rule by wealthy class • Strong federal government • Emphasis on manufacturing • Loose interpretation of the Constitution • British alliance • National bank • Protective tariffs • Led by Thomas Jefferson • Rule by the people • Strong state governments • Emphasis on farming • Strict interpretation of the Constitution • French alliance • State banks • Free trade
John Adams - Federalist • John Adams (Federalist) elected President • Thomas Jefferson (Democratic-Republican) elected Vice-President
XYZ Affair • France was seizing American ships that did business with Great Britain • Adams sends delegation to France to negotiate an end to the dispute • French foreign minister Charles de Talleyrand demands a bribe before meeting with the American delegation • 4. America refuses & "Millions for defense, but not one cent for tribute“ becomes the rallying cry as we begin to prepare for war. • Federalists hoped to benefit from anti-French sentiment, but Adams refused to rush into war simply for political gain & sends another delegation to France to try again. • 1800 - America & France sign a treaty putting an end to the threat of war
Alien & Sedition Acts • (1798) passed by the Federalist controlled Congress to strengthen the federal government and silence Republican opposition to their party • Alien Acts - allowed the president to imprison aliens (immigrants), or send those he considered dangerous out of the country • Sedition Act - made it illegal to speak, write, or publish "false, scandalous, & malicious" criticism of the government. • States respond by passing the Virginia and Kentucky resolutions claiming that: • the acts could not be put into action because they violated the Constitution • Kentucky's resolution also suggested states might nullify federal laws they considered unconstitutional. This is one of the 1st examples of the doctrine of state's rights.
Works Cited • "Conflicts and Resolutions of 1797-1798." America's Early Years: America in a Changing World. Web. 24 Jan 2011. <http://player.discoveryeducation.com/index.cfm?guidAssetId=E4A36148-0166-4ED9-9FC7-A37F3C249D81&blnFromSearch=1&productcode=US>. • "John Adams." Wikimedia Commons. Web. 24 Jan 2011. <http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/File:US_Navy_031029-N-6236G-001_A_painting_of_President_John_Adams_(1735-1826),_2nd_president_of_the_United_States,_by_Asher_B._Durand_(1767-1845)-crop.jpg>. • "Response to the Alien & Sedition Acts." Just the Facts: Documents of Destiny: Growth of a New Nation. Web. 24 Jan 2011. <http://player.discoveryeducation.com/index.cfm?guidAssetId=5243E500-7FCB-4FA2-AA07-DF345A4F5A22&blnFromSearch=1&productcode=US>.