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RIMTA Green Marine Day. Nigel Calder. Some of what follows is crystal ball gazing I am no more qualified to do this than many others in this room And in any case, we are in a very volatile environment, so the only sure thing is that we will all be wrong!. Three huge drivers:.

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Presentation Transcript
Some of what follows is crystal ball gazing
  • I am no more qualified to do this than many others in this room
  • And in any case, we are in a very volatile environment, so the only sure thing is that we will all be wrong!
three huge drivers
Three huge drivers:
  • Fuel price hikes of 2008
    • How quickly will we forget?
    • Is this the long term writing on the wall?
  • The recession and drying up of credit
    • Despite a recovering economy, we cannot continue to spend more than we earn
  • Climate change consciousness
    • Finally catching up with the USA…
    • Cap and trade…
  • We need a mechanism to think about the long term impact of these things…
concurrently innovation in design and construction
Concurrently, innovation in design and construction:
  • Resin infusion
  • Widespread adoption of carbon and other new materials
  • Fiber rigging
  • Lots of experimentation in design and engineering (e.g. America’s Cup)
  • Ever tightening regulations
a generational shift in systems
A generational shift in systems...
  • 1970’s and solid state revolution
  • Power distribution unchanged…
  • Networking, especially NMEA 2000
  • Distributed power
  • ‘Hybrid’ power generation and management
  • Hybrid propulsion

Systems have been an Achilles heel…

We have the potential for radical improvements in reliability and efficiency

measuring efficiency specific fuel consumption sfc
Measuring efficiency: Specific Fuel Consumption (SFC):

SFC is the amount of fuel it takes to produce a kWh (kilowatt-hour) of energy

It is expressed as grams/kWh (g/kWh)

SFC is typically between 210 and 340 g/kWh

Peak efficiency (lowest SFC) generally occurs at, or close to, the full load at peak torque

On our D2-75 test engine, this is 230 g/kWh at 1500-1800 rpm, and at +/- 25 kW (about 80% load at these speeds)

Fuel maps

Intermittent duty to 55 kW

Continuous duty

Peak efficiency 230g/kWh

Battery charging from an alternator:

Peak efficiency @

+/- 800 g/kWh reflects

alternator and belt

losses and light load…

AC generator operation

36 kW at flywheel

27 kW, 60 Hz generator

29 kW at flywheel:

22 kW, 50 Hz generator

Intermittent duty

Continuous duty

5 kW generator output

how inefficiently
How inefficiently?

Efficiency relative to the peak efficiency

Courtesy Victron Energy

  • Consider the Onan 7 kW generator with a 16,000 BTU aircon unit:
  • When the aircon is running the generator is operating at +/- 58% of peak efficiency
  • When the aircon has cycled to ‘off’, the generator is operating at 0% of peak
  • efficiency, and in fact is still burning approximately 25% of the full load fuel
  • 3. With an aircon duty cycle of 30%, the generator is burning +/- 200% of the fuel it
  • would use if the aircon load could be met at peak performance
Propulsion efficiency

Intermittent duty to 55 kW

Continuous duty


Over propped


Matched prop


Under propped

There is a great deal of opportunity here to improve efficiency and assume the mantle of ‘green technologies’
a case study
A case study:

‘Typical’ 4-person household

Total daily load = 17 kWh

Options(assuming 30% losses through the batteries and inverter):

Adapted from a table, courtesy Victron Energy

batteries as the enabling technology
Batteries as the enabling technology:
  • If a fossil fuel engine must be operated, only do so at peak efficiency
  • Use batteries as a ‘buffer’
  • This requires very high charge and discharge rates, and operation in a partial SOC
  • Broadly the same as the automotive world
a platform for
A platform for:
  • Optimization of shorepower…
  • Integration of solar, wind, regeneration on sailboats, and other sources (such as fuel cells) as they become available
  • Modest improvement in propulsion efficiency
  • Dramatic improvement in house efficiency
  • Packaged systems with improved reliability
systems as a microcosm of the challenges facing us
Systems as a microcosm of the challenges facing us:
  • Modern technologies are multi-disciplinary:
    • mechanical, traditional electrical, power electronics, networking electronics, software...
  • Recreational marine world is a cottage industry
    • Even Brunswick and Beneteau are a loose alliance of individual companies
  • Unlike in automotive, no one company has the resources to master the new technologies
agglomerating resources
Agglomerating resources:
  • Commercial alliances
    • VW/ZF/Beneteau
  • Grant-based consortia
    • HYMAR
  • Cluster development
  • Statewide and national initiatives
    • MAREX, HISWA, FinnBoat…
    • MBBO
the hymar project
The HYMAR project:
  • EU Framework Program (FP7)
  • DOE, ARPA-E, etc.
  • Creating the vision
  • Writing the proposal
  • Shepherding it through the process
  • Managing the project
  • The HYMAR players:
    • ICOMIA, Malo Yachts, Mastervolt, Steyr Motors, Bosch Engineering Group, Bruntons Propellers, INSEAN, EnerSys
    • IP issues
  • The first successful marine-based applicant…
grant processes
Grant processes:
  • Someone has to put up the money
  • There needs to be a vision for the program
  • There must be a mechanism for identifying projects for funding
  • Boatbuilders will need help:
    • Identifying opportunities
    • Building alliances
    • No access to professional writers!
  • Streamlining the process…
creating the vision
Creating the vision:
  • MTAs versus a new organization
  • Models we can use:
    • Marex, HISWA, FinnBoat, South Africa…
  • Strategic planning (use academia?)
  • Identifying core technologies and trends
  • Fostering alliances
  • Technical assistance
  • Looking outside the boatbuilding world
    • TPI’s windmill blades
    • Hodgden’s furniture business
    • Lyman Morse Technologies Division
additional functions
Additional functions:
  • Collective branding and marketing
  • Getting the media on board
  • International symposia
  • Raising technology levels and creating a career path
  • Protecting the waterfront
  • Statewide legislative initiatives
  • Developing an export culture

The importance of volunteer leadership v bureaucracy

an exciting future
An exciting future:
  • Technological changes in construction and systems are creating more opportunity to reinvent our industry than at any time in the past 30 years
  • This is occurring at a time of great economic and cultural change; the ‘green’ label will become increasingly important
  • We need to form creative alliances, and reach out to other sectors, in order to operate effectively in this environment
  • Thos who position themselves correctly will emerge as the winners as the market regains strength