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  1. LAN/WAN Cody Mattson & Tyler Hawkins

  2. Definition of LAN • (LAN) stands for Local Area Network • A LAN allows networking capability to a group of computers in close proximity to each other • It is commonly used in an office buildings and schools • ADVANTAGES OF LAN: • SPEED • Provides a quick way to share documents and files with others connected to the LAN • COST • Made with inexpensive hardware such as Ethernet Cables, Network adapters, and Hubs • SECURITY • Users can save their work centrally on the network's file server • RESOURCE SHARING • Every person in an office can share one printer instead of needing a printer for every computer • DISADVANTAGE OF LAN: • Can be expensive to install, file server may fail, cables may break

  3. How LAN Works • A LAN consists of two or more computers connected together in a building using software and hardware • A LAN is usually a private network, unlike the public internet • In a LAN there is a main computer called the server and remote computers called clients • The Local Area Network allows computers on it to share files, resources, and if desired, an Internet connection • The server will go to internet and pull the resource the client requesting • It also will store a copy of this for future requests

  4. Types of LAN • Ethernet • Ethernet is a 10Mbps LAN that uses the Carrier Sense Multiple Access with Collision Detection (CSMA/CD) protocol to control access network • Token Ring • This is a 4-Mbps or 16-Mbps token-passing method • Devices on a Token Ring network get access to the media through token passing. Token and data pass to each station on the ring. The devices pass the token around the ring until one of the computer who wants to transmit data , takes the token and replaces it with a frame. • Fast Ethernet • Fast Ethernet is an Ethernet network that can transfer data at a rate of 100 megabits per second • Gigabit Ethernet • Gigabit Ethernet delivers a data rate of 1,000 megabits per second or one gigabit per second • Is becoming very popular and is expected to soon replace Fast Ethernet as the standard • 10 Gigabit Ethernet • 10 Gigabit Ethernet is the latest generation and delivers a data rate of 10,000 megabits per second or 10 gigabits per second

  5. LAN Topologies • Point to Point • Point to Point is the simplest network topology from a logical and physical perspective and offers the highest level of network performance • Point to point topologies are a subset of every other topology. This topology is implemented via a single connection from one network node, directly to another. • Bus • Bus networks are implemented via a common transmission medium in which nodes "listen" in on the common medium for signals addressed to that node. Bandwidth is shared across all nodes attached to the to the bus, and collision handling is a critical component of network transmission • Star • Star topologies are implemented via a common switching node which routes data from one connected node to another as if it were configured as a point to point topology • From the nodes transmitting and receiving data, there is no practical distinction between a star network and a point to point network • Tree • The tree network topology is the most common physical and logical topology in LAN architectures. The principle behind a tree topology is that each node on the network graph can have child nodes, and those child nodes are distinct. • Mesh • Mesh networks are a superset of tree networks, and are distinguished by allowing nodes to act independently as routers, are self healing and can be static or ad-hoc • Common LAN environments deploying commodity hardware rarely include the concept of mesh networking since from a wired LAN perspective there is little necessity for this topology • Ring • Ring topologies are implemented by connecting each node to two other nodes on the network, such that there is a contiguous connection between all nodes in the network • This topology has some physical implementations however is almost completely unused in modern LANs.

  6. Manufacturers / Prices or LAN Market Share of Four Largest Firms by LAN Equipment Routers • MANUFACTURERS • Cisco • Bay Networks • Ascend Communications • 3Com • PRICE • Set-up Costs • If there is a need to set-up a couple of extra devices on the network, it is not very expensive to do that • Maintenance Costs • Because it covers a relatively small geographical area LANs are easier to maintain at relatively low costs Switches LAN Cards Hubs

  7. Definition of WAN • (WAN) stands for Wide Area Network • WAN is a long-distance communications network that covers a wide geographic area • Like a state or country • Telephone companies / cellular carriers deploy WANs to service large regional areas or the entire nation • Large enterprises have their own private WANs to link remote offices, or they use the Internet for connectivity • The Internet is the world's largest WAN

  8. How WAN works • WANs are either point-to-point or operate across packet-switched networks • Point-to-Point • Involves a direct connection between two sites • Service involve either analog dial-up lines, which a modem is used to connect the computer to the telephone line or dedicated leased digital telephone lines known as private lines • Service providers include both local telephone companies and long distance carriers • Packet-Switched Networks • Involves data transmitted in packets over shared circuits • Services are typically chosen by organizations which have low volumes of data or numerous sites where multiple dedicated lines would be too expensive • WANs can be used for data sharing purposes like LANs • Slower transmission speeds, however make some applications less practical for WANs • Common Uses of WANs • Electronic mail and file transfer • Permit users at remote sites to access and enter data on a central site's database • Workers at dispersed locations can more easily collaborate

  9. Types of WAN • Leased Line • It is the most expensive of all types and also the most secure • This option is used by most big software corporations as not only does it offer superior security features but also higher data transfer rate • Circuit Switching • These are relatively cheaper connections and rely on making a physical circuit path between two points • Dial up connections is an example of circuit switching • Packet Switching • They use dynamic circuit paths with single point to multiple point linking • Cell Relay • Similar in structure to packet switching type but divides data into equally sized packets or cells • Wireless WAN • Provides Internet connectivity through the wireless telecommunication mode and is called Wireless Wide Area Network (WWAN)

  10. WAN Topologies • Peer-to-Peer • A WAN with single interconnection points for each location is arranged in a peer-to-peer topology • A WAN peer-to-peer topology is similar to peer-to-peer communications on a LAN in that each site depends on every other site in the network to transmit and receive its traffic • Ring • In a ring WAN topology each site is connected to two other sites so that the entire WAN forms a ring pattern • This architecture is similar to the ring LAN topology except that a ring WAN topology connects locations rather than local nodes • Star • The star WAN topology mimics the arrangement of a star LAN • A single site acts as the central connection point for several other points • Star WANs are more reliable than the peer-to-peer or ring WANs • Mesh • Mesh WAN topology incorporates many directly interconnected nodes in this case in geographical locations • Every site is interconnected, data can travel directly from its origin to its destination • If one connection suffers a problem, routers can redirect data easily and quickly • One drawback to a mesh WAN is the cost • Tiered • Tiered WAN topologies are similar to the hierarchical hybrid topologies used with LANs • In a tiered WAN topology, WAN sites connected in a star or ring formations are interconnected at different levels, with the interconnection points being organized into layers

  11. Manufacturers / Prices of WAN • MANUFACTURERS • Cisco • 3Com • Fujitsu • PRICE • Set-up Costs • Since networks in remote areas have to be connected to far away locations, set-up costs are higher • However WANs using public networks can be setup relatively cheaply • Maintenance Costs • Maintaining WAN is difficult because of its wider geographical coverage and higher maintenance costs

  12. Networking History • Early Networks • 1838 – Telegraph • The telegraph is the first network • Revolutionizes long distant communication and leads to the development of the telephone • 1876 – Telephones • Lay foundation for future telecommunication networks • 1969 – ARPANET • Packet-switching network that breaks data into small blocks, sends data, then re-assembles it • 1976 – Ethernet is developed • Allows linking of computers to a LAN that sends data at 10mp/s • 1978 – Bulletin Board System • Exchange data between users over phone lines • 1983 – “year of the LAN” • Networks of computers dominate local sites • 1990 – World Wide Web • Beginning of the Internet • Brings high-speed network communication into homes

  13. LAN vs. WAN

  14. References • • • • • • • • • •