slide1 n.
Download
Skip this Video
Loading SlideShow in 5 Seconds..
Calcification in Scleractinian Corals: The Role of Carbonic Anhydrase skeletal secretion PowerPoint Presentation
Download Presentation
Calcification in Scleractinian Corals: The Role of Carbonic Anhydrase skeletal secretion

Loading in 2 Seconds...

play fullscreen
1 / 17

Calcification in Scleractinian Corals: The Role of Carbonic Anhydrase skeletal secretion - PowerPoint PPT Presentation


  • 95 Views
  • Uploaded on

Calcification in Scleractinian Corals: The Role of Carbonic Anhydrase skeletal secretion. Scleractinian corals secrete a calcium carbonate skeleton (aragonite) soon after settlement on suitable substrate. Newly settled Favia fragum . Szmant. Brief Anatomy of a Scleractinian coral.

loader
I am the owner, or an agent authorized to act on behalf of the owner, of the copyrighted work described.
capcha
Download Presentation

PowerPoint Slideshow about 'Calcification in Scleractinian Corals: The Role of Carbonic Anhydrase skeletal secretion' - soyala


An Image/Link below is provided (as is) to download presentation

Download Policy: Content on the Website is provided to you AS IS for your information and personal use and may not be sold / licensed / shared on other websites without getting consent from its author.While downloading, if for some reason you are not able to download a presentation, the publisher may have deleted the file from their server.


- - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - E N D - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - -
Presentation Transcript
slide1

Calcification in Scleractinian Corals: The Role of Carbonic Anhydrase skeletal secretion

Scleractinian corals secrete a calcium carbonate skeleton (aragonite) soon after settlement on suitable substrate

Newly settled Faviafragum. Szmant

slide3

Calcification rates are increased during daylight and are reduced at night.

Light enhanced calcification in the coral Stylophorapistillata. Is enhancement due to photosynthesis?

Moya, A. et al. 2006

slide4

Proposed calcification mechanisms:

Allemand et al, 2002

Calcium ion pathway in coral calcification has been well studied. Ca2+ ions are transported from the calicoblastic epithelial cells and into the subcalicoblastic area (site of calcification) via Ca2+ATPases.

carbonic anhydrase in the scleractinian coral stylophora pistillata

Goals of Study:

  • Confirm identity of new gene STPCA
    • Amplification of full mRNA sequence
    • Phylogenetic map
  • Characterize function of protein encoded by STPCA
    • Amino acid sequence alignment
    • Immunolocalization
    • Biochemical Characterization
    • Gene expression assay

Carbonic Anhydrase in the Scleractinian Coral Stylophorapistillata

AurelieMoyaet al. The Journalof Biological Chemistry. 2008

Sciencedaily.com

Underlying question: How does CA fit into the mechanism of coral calcification?

slide7

Phylogenetic relationships of vertebrates and invertebratesα-CA sequences inferred from ML and Bayesian analyses

STPCA groups with other Cnidarian CA sequences. Important because of symbiotic relationship and because of host of organisms that live within scleractinian skeletons

Second AnthozoanCA grouping. Cytosolic form of Carbonic Anhydrase

Groups with two other Anthozoan species. One is also a Scleractinian and the other is a Actinaria (non-calcifying, non-symbiotic, anemone)

Moya A et al. J. Biol. Chem. 2008;283:25475-25484

slide8

Alignment of α-CA sequences from S. pistillata (STPCA), F. scutaria (FCAa), N. vectensis, Homo sapiens CAVI, XIV, I, II, A. elegantissima, and R. pachyptila

  • Signal Peptide present in STPCA sequence.
  • No GPI anchor in sequence
  • No evidence of trans-membrane regions (no hydrophobic regions in sequence).

At the subcellular level, where are these enzymes found?

Moya A et al. J. Biol. Chem. 2008;283:25475-25484

slide9

Immunolocalization of α-STPCA on the tissue slide of S. pistillata with carbonic anhydrase-specific antibody (anti-STPCA) or preimmune serum

  • A and B: DAPI, blue stain for nuclei. Anti-STPCA, orange dye
  • C: Control. DAPI and Preimmune serum

STPCA shown to be localized to calicoblastic epithelium cells, adjacent to the skeleton. Little to no staining seen in other tissue types, especially the oral endoderm where much of the symbiotic algae resides.

  • SW: saltwater
  • OT: oral tissue
  • AT: aboral tissue
  • AE: aboral endoderm
  • CE: calicoblastic ectoderm
  • Co: coelenteron
  • Sk: skeleton

Moya A et al. J. Biol. Chem. 2008;283:25475-25484

slide10

Western blot showing that A/STPCA protein is glycosylated

Chimeric STPCA with polyhistidine tail attached to the C-terminus, and a normal STPCA gene treated with N-glycanase and run on a western blot. Results in both cases suggest glycosylation.

Only anti-phosphoserine binds to enzyme in Western Blot. Results suggest serine and not threonine or tyrosine residues are site of phosphorylation. Amino Acid sequence analysis also shows predicted phosphorylation sites mostly on serine residues.

Moya A et al. J. Biol. Chem. 2008;283:25475-25484

slide11

Kinetic parameters for carbon dioxide hydration reaction. STPCA activity is similar to secreted forms of human alpha carbonic anhydrase

CA isoforms with similar kinetic parameters. All three are secreted forms of alpha carbonic anyhdrase

Moya A et al. J. Biol. Chem. 2008;283:25475-25484

Mitochondrial isoforms

Trans-membrane domain isoforms

slide12

STPCA gene expression significantly higher at night than during the day.

  • Corals kept in seawater system with a 12:12 hr light dark regime
  • Lighting provided by flourescent bulbs
  • Corals collected 12 hours apart, once during the day and once at night
  • Calcification rates are 2.6 times higher during the day than at night.
  • 2x upregulation of STPCA at night than during the day.
slide13

Summary of Findings:

  • Goals of Study:
  • Confirm identity of new gene STPCA
    • Amplification of full mRNA sequence
      • RACE amplification, BLAST confirm gene ID
    • Phylogenetic map
      • STPCA clustered with other cnidarian (secreted) CA isoforms
  • Characterize function of protein encoded by STPCA
    • Amino acid sequence alignment
      • No GPI anchor, sequence contains signal peptide, no hydrophobic regions found.
    • Immunolocalization
      • STPCA localized to areas involved with calcification (calicoblastic epithelium)
    • Biochemical Characterization
      • Enzyme is glycosylated and only serine residues are phosphorylated.
    • Gene expression assay
      • STPCA upregulated at night

Underlying question: How does CA fit into the mechanisms of coral calcification? Photosynthesis?

slide14

Schematic model proposed for the function of CA in the calcification process

Moya A et al. J. Biol. Chem. 2008;283:25475-25484

  • Carbon dioxide is major carbon source for calcification. CO2 diffuses across CE membrane and into sub-calicoblastic epithelium where CA converts it into carbonic acid.
  • CA up-regulated at night to deal with decreased pH environment (low pH inhibits calcium carbonate reaction rate.
slide15

Critique:

  • STPCA role in light enhanced calcification.
      • Is night time up-regulation a biologically meaningful response to increased pH in the CE or indicative of a lag time between transcription and translation?

Work done in Galaxeafascicularis, showing decreased night time pH levels in both the subcalicoblastic area and coelenteron.

(Al-Horani et al, 2003)

slide16

Model fits well with calcification mechanism proposed by Allemand et al, 2004

DIC reservoir is carbon dioxide from CE cell mitochondria. Major difference is they proposed CA functioned in cytosol and carbonic acid transported to sub-calicoblastic region via a transport channel.

Work done by Allemand et al, 2004 suggesting role of Carbonic Anhydrase in coral calcification. EZ is CA inhibitor. DIDS is a anion channel inhibitor.

slide17

Critique:

  • STPCA only functions in calcification and plays no role in photosynthesis.
      • Similar gene found in non-calcifying and non-symbiotic coral
      • Is lack of staining in other tissue layers a response to STPCA function of time of day? When were the corals used for staining collected?

www.animalpicturesarchive.com

www.genome.org