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15th ICSMFE: Workshop #7 organised by TC2 Centrifuge Testing Some Achievements and Challenges Malcolm Bolton Cambridge U PowerPoint Presentation
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15th ICSMFE: Workshop #7 organised by TC2 Centrifuge Testing Some Achievements and Challenges Malcolm Bolton Cambridge University. What are the “unique selling points” of centrifuge testing?. Cheap replication of the response of geo-structures Weight-induced stresses; gradients and rotations

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Presentation Transcript
slide1
15th ICSMFE: Workshop #7organised by TC2Centrifuge TestingSome Achievements and ChallengesMalcolm BoltonCambridge University
what are the unique selling points of centrifuge testing
What are the “unique selling points” of centrifuge testing?
  • Cheap replication of the response of geo-structures
  • Weight-induced stresses; gradients and rotations
  • Coupling of intergranular and pore fluid pressures
  • Access to severe distortions, drainage of clay, 3D
  • Realistic boundary conditions;
    • free surface, cracks
    • soil-structure compatibility
    • seismic shaking
some achievements actuators
Some achievements: actuators
  • CITY University tunnelling kit
  • TIT excavator
  • NUS compaction sand piler
  • UWA-COFS drag anchor deployment
  • TUD wave generator
  • CCORE static liquefaction actuator
  • UCD earthquake simulator
  • CU-SC atmospheric chamber
slide4

CITY U.

tunelling

slip rings

swinging

platform

motor

Acutronic 661 Centrifuge

model

container

clay sample with targets on front surface

swinging

platform

swing

hangers

perspex

window

camera

lights

tunnel

slide5

3D Surface settlements from digital image analysis

(a) left camera

(b) centre camera

(c) right camera

slide6

TIT

excavator

slide7

(a) Casing and sand hopper. (a) SCP model on centrifuge.

Figure 16a – b. In-flight SCP installer.

NUS

sand piler

slide8

UWA - COFS

drag anchor deployment

slide9

TUD

wave generator

slide10

Liquefaction Event Geometry and Instrumentation

Settlement Gauge

Piezometer

Clay Embankment

Contained

Compacted

Sand

DAS

Sand

BBW Sand

Deposit

BAW Sand Deposit

Tilt Sections

CANLEX

CCORE

static flowslide actuator

slide11

Before

After 2 Shakes

UCD

earthquake shaker

some challenges
Some challenges
  • Replicating the mechanics of processes
  • Broadband data stream to characterise soil response
  • Realistic soil profiles - grading, layering, OCR etc
  • Assessment of size and rate effects
  • The atmospheric boundary condition
slide21

PIV reveals slope deformation mechanisms

And remember - this was not “collapse”

discussion point
Discussion point
  • We must not make complex models just for fun
  • Our task is to reproduce essential complexity
  • And then observe events intensively
  • Ground layering is sometimes essential
  • Anisotropy may be essential, and is automatic
  • Construction process is essential
  • In clays, the atmospheric boundary may be essential
  • We need to make simple mechanistic models
  • Numerical simulation would be useful but lags behind, and can not therefore be considered essential…..