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The Industrial Revolution PowerPoint Presentation
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The Industrial Revolution

The Industrial Revolution

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The Industrial Revolution

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Presentation Transcript

  1. The Industrial Revolution

  2. Starts with Agriculture…

  3. Agricultural Revolution • Enclosure Movement • Enclosing of fields with fences of hedges • What effects do you think this would have in a country? • 1) Fewer small farms • 2) Landowners tried new farming methods • JethroTull - 1700 • Seed Drill – planted seeds in nice neat rows • Crop rotation method • Rotated what crops you grew based on its effects on the soil

  4. The Enclosure Movement

  5. “Enclosed” Lands Today

  6. Agricultural Revolution • How would this effect livestock? • More food for animals, this led to…? • More and better quality meats • As the food supply increased, what else do you think increased? • Increase in the population • Only so many people can farm…So what are these people going to do?

  7. Industrial England: "Workshop of the World" That Nation of Shopkeepers! -- Napoleon Bonaparte

  8. Why Did Industrialization Begin in England?

  9. Reason #1 Large population of workers

  10. Reason #2 Large supply of natural resources

  11. Natural Resources • Water power and coal – fuel for the new machines • Iron ore – build new machines and buildings • Rivers – transportation • Harbors – merchant ships set sail

  12. Early Canals Britain’s Earliest Transportation Infrastructure

  13. Coalfields & Industrial Areas

  14. Coal Mining in Britain:1800-1914

  15. Young Coal Miners

  16. Child Labor in the Mines Child “hurriers”

  17. Reason #3 Expanding economy

  18. Economy • Expanded economy invested in new businesses as well as new inventions • Britain had a great banking system in place • Very willing to lend money to people

  19. Reason #4 Political stability

  20. James Hargreaves:“Father of the Spinning Jenny” The “Spinning Jenny” • Allowed only one person to make thread • Very weak however

  21. Richard Arkwright:“Pioneer of the Factory System” The “Water Frame” • Stronger thread, but more coarser

  22. Edmund Cartwright’s Power Loom

  23. Textile Industry • All of these sped up the process of making cloth…Why would that be important? • One invention led to the next • Most were very bulky, how did this effect the industry? • Where was GB getting its cotton from? • What was the hardest part in deal with the cotton production? • Enter Catherine Littlefield Greene… Who is she? • How would this effect the cotton industry? (2 ways)

  24. The Luddites: 1811-1816 Attacks on the “frames” [power looms]. Ned Ludd [a mythical figure supposed to live in Sherwood Forest]

  25. The Luddite Triangle

  26. The Luddites

  27. Textile FactoryWorkers in England

  28. The Factory System • Rigid schedule. • 12-14 hour day. • Dangerous conditions. • Mind-numbing monotony.

  29. Textile FactoryWorkers in England

  30. British Coin Portraying a Factory, 1812

  31. Young “Bobbin-Doffers”

  32. Jacquard’s Loom

  33. John Kay’s “Flying Shuttle”

  34. Transportation • Why is James Watt important? • First used to pump water out of coal mines • Watt made is more efficient • How would this technology be used? • Propel boats – Steamships • Propel flat bed on wheels– Railroads • How did this change the face of countries?

  35. James Watt’s Steam Engine

  36. Steam Tractor

  37. Steam Ship

  38. An Early Steam Locomotive

  39. Later Locomotives

  40. Effects of the Railroad • 1) Cheap transportation of raw materials and manufactured goods • 2) Created 100s of new jobs • 3) Boosted agricultural and fishing industires • How did it do this? • 4) People could live far from where they worked. People started to move to the countryside

  41. The Impact of the Railroad

  42. “The Great Land Serpent”