The Industrial Revolution
Starts with Agriculture…
Agricultural Revolution • Enclosure Movement • Enclosing of fields with fences of hedges • What effects do you think this would have in a country? • 1) Fewer small farms • 2) Landowners tried new farming methods • JethroTull - 1700 • Seed Drill – planted seeds in nice neat rows • Crop rotation method • Rotated what crops you grew based on its effects on the soil
Agricultural Revolution • How would this effect livestock? • More food for animals, this led to…? • More and better quality meats • As the food supply increased, what else do you think increased? • Increase in the population • Only so many people can farm…So what are these people going to do?
Industrial England: "Workshop of the World" That Nation of Shopkeepers! -- Napoleon Bonaparte
Why Did Industrialization Begin in England?
Reason #1 Large population of workers
Reason #2 Large supply of natural resources
Natural Resources • Water power and coal – fuel for the new machines • Iron ore – build new machines and buildings • Rivers – transportation • Harbors – merchant ships set sail
Early Canals Britain’s Earliest Transportation Infrastructure
Child Labor in the Mines Child “hurriers”
Reason #3 Expanding economy
Economy • Expanded economy invested in new businesses as well as new inventions • Britain had a great banking system in place • Very willing to lend money to people
Reason #4 Political stability
James Hargreaves:“Father of the Spinning Jenny” The “Spinning Jenny” • Allowed only one person to make thread • Very weak however
Richard Arkwright:“Pioneer of the Factory System” The “Water Frame” • Stronger thread, but more coarser
Textile Industry • All of these sped up the process of making cloth…Why would that be important? • One invention led to the next • Most were very bulky, how did this effect the industry? • Where was GB getting its cotton from? • What was the hardest part in deal with the cotton production? • Enter Catherine Littlefield Greene… Who is she? • How would this effect the cotton industry? (2 ways)
The Luddites: 1811-1816 Attacks on the “frames” [power looms]. Ned Ludd [a mythical figure supposed to live in Sherwood Forest]
The Factory System • Rigid schedule. • 12-14 hour day. • Dangerous conditions. • Mind-numbing monotony.
Transportation • Why is James Watt important? • First used to pump water out of coal mines • Watt made is more efficient • How would this technology be used? • Propel boats – Steamships • Propel flat bed on wheels– Railroads • How did this change the face of countries?
Effects of the Railroad • 1) Cheap transportation of raw materials and manufactured goods • 2) Created 100s of new jobs • 3) Boosted agricultural and fishing industires • How did it do this? • 4) People could live far from where they worked. People started to move to the countryside