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A Nation at Risk:

Chapter 1. A Nation at Risk:. The Need for Comprehensive School Health Education. Causes of Deaths Among Young People. Motor vehicle crashes Other intentional injuries (falls, fires, drownings) Homicide Suicide. Many of these deaths are preventable. Prominent Causes of Deaths in Adults.

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A Nation at Risk:

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  1. Chapter 1 A Nation at Risk: The Need for Comprehensive School Health Education

  2. Causes of Deaths Among Young People • Motor vehicle crashes • Other intentional injuries (falls, fires, drownings) • Homicide • Suicide Many of these deaths are preventable

  3. Prominent Causes of Deaths in Adults • Heart disease, cancer, and stroke • Habits established in childhood and adolescence often contribute to these diseases • Causes are due to: • Dietary habits • Cigarette smoking • Alcohol use • Inactivity

  4. What Are Risk Behaviors? • Action a person chooses that threatens health • Can cause injury, illness, and premature death • Most risk behaviors: – Are established during youth • Persist into adulthood • Are interrelated • Contribute to poor health, education, social outcomes • Are preventable

  5. 6 Categories of Risk Behavior for Today’s Students Identified by the Centers for Disease Control & Prevention • Behaviors contributing to unintentional/ intentional injuries • Tobacco use • Alcohol and other drug use

  6. 6 Categories of Risk Behavior for Today’s Students (cont’d) Identified by the Centers for Disease Control & Prevention • Sexual behaviors resulting in unintended pregnancy and STDs • Dietary patterns contributing to disease • Insufficient physical activity Risk behavior = action a person chooses that threatens health

  7. Unintentional Injuries Caused by an Accident • Motor vehicle–related injuries • Fires • Drowning • Others including: falls, suffocation, poisoning, etc.

  8. Intentional Injuries Involving interpersonal violence and self-directed violence (Physical force used to cause injury) • Domestic violence (i.e., child abuse) • Bullying and fighting • Homicide • Suicide

  9. Child Abuse • Harmful treatment of a minor • Includes physical, emotional, sexual abuse, and neglect • Over 3 million are reported as victims to the Child Protection Services (CPS) • Over one thousand die from abuse annually

  10. Tobacco Use • Cigarettes, pipes, cigars, or smokeless tobacco • Most preventable cause of death in the U.S. • 29.2% male and 27.7% female are smokers (2001 Youth Risk Behavior Survey) • Each day, 4,400 youths (aged 12-17) try cigarette smoking • Depression linked to smoking (Goodman & Capitman, 2000)

  11. Alcohol Use • Psychoactive drug that depresses the CNS • Average age of students who start to drink is between 12-13 • One third of students report episodic heavy drinking, having 5 or more drinks on a single occasion in the past month Associated with crimes, injuries, and other problems among youths

  12. Other Drug Use • Illicit drug use has increased in grades 8, 10, 12 • One fourth of high school students have tried marijuana (Grunbaum, 2002) • Gateway drug to other illicit drugs

  13. Sexual Behaviors Contributing to Unintended Pregnancy & STDs • 45.6% of high school students report sexual intercourse experience • Early sexual experiences increase risk of pregnancy and STDs • The greater number of sex partners heightens the risk for STDs, especially HIV

  14. HIV Infection Human immunodeficiency virus destroys the body’s immune system, leading to AIDS There is currently no cure for AIDS Bodily fluids can transmit the virus via unprotected sexual intercourse The number of 12-21 year olds infected with HIV is increasing

  15. Unintended Pregnancies • Sexually active students risk unintended pregnancies • The United States has one of the highest adolescent birth rates among developed nations • Teen moms are likely to have a second birth within 24 months after the first birth (National Campaign to Prevent Teen Pregnancy, 2002)

  16. Dietary Patterns that Contribute to Disease • Chronic diseases are linked to poor eating habits • More young people do not meet recommendations for healthy eating • Excess calories lead to obesity, which has doubled for adolescents (Ogden et al.,2003) • Adolescents and children often skip breakfast, which affects performance • Many adolescents develop eating disorders due to low self-esteem, negative body image, or feelings of inadequacy

  17. Insufficient Physical Activity • Physical activity is body movement from skeletal muscles that leads to energy expenditure • Many young people do not get enough physical activity • Fewer children are enrolling in daily P.E. • Use of TV and video games contributes to this pattern

  18. Healthy People 2010 (Table 1-1) • Represents ideas of organizations and individuals concerning the nation’s health • Two goals set by Healthy People 2010 • Increase quality and years of healthy life • Eliminate health disparities

  19. CDC School Health Guidelines • Intended to help personnel working in schools and community-based programs meet national health objectives • Guidelines to: • Prevent the spread of AIDS • Prevent tobacco use and addiction • Promote lifelong healthy eating • Promote physical activity among young people • Prevent skin cancer • Prevent unintentional injuries and violence

  20. Safe and Drug-Free Schools Program • Federal initiative that supports efforts to reduce drugs, alcohol, tobacco use, and violence through education and prevention activities • Provides grants to states, local education agencies, communities, and schools

  21. The National Longitudinal Study of Adolescent Health • Federally funded initiative • Studies adolescent health, risk behaviors, resilience, and protective factors • Largest and most comprehensive survey of adolescents in the U.S. • Results show that teenagers who have a feeling of “connectedness” with parents and schools are less likely to have unhealthful behavior development and are more likely to make better choices

  22. The CoordinatedSchool Health Program • Addresses complete physical, emotional, intellectual, and social well-being of students and staff • School health services and programs promote healthy living and safe environment • Creates achievement and success • Seeks active partnerships with community-based agencies and personnel • Implements changes via a School Health Coordinator, who is responsible for the evaluation and administration of the program See figure 1-1 for components

  23. The CoordinatedSchool Health Program (cont’d) • Comprehensive school health education • School health services • A healthful and safe school environment • Physical education

  24. The CoordinatedSchool Health Program (cont’d) • Nutrition services • Counseling, psychological, social services • Health promotion for staff • Family and community involvement

  25. The Meeks Heit Umbrella of Comprehensive School Health Education Designed to protect youth from the six categories of risk behaviors identified by the CDC by: • Teaching them to comprehend health knowledge • Accessing health information, products, and services • Practicing healthful behaviors • Managing stress • Analyzing influences on health

  26. The Meeks Heit Umbrella of Comprehensive School Health Education (cont’d) • Using communication skills • Using resistance skills • Using conflict resolution skills • Setting health goals • Making responsible decisions • Advocating for health • Demonstrating good character

  27. Mental and Emotional Health Family and Social Health Growth and Development Nutrition Personal Health and Physical Activity Alcohol, Tobacco, and Other Drugs Communicable and Chronic Disease Consumer and Community Health Environmental Health Injury Prevention and Safety The Meeks Heit Umbrella of Comprehensive School Health Education Categories

  28. Implementing the Comprehensive School Health Education Curriculum • Qualified and trained teachers • Standards-based curricula and assessment • Addressing the needs of diverse learners • Integrating health content into other subject areas • Using principles of effective Health Education Curricula

  29. Chapter 1 A Nation at Risk: The Need for Comprehensive School Health Education

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