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  1. Developed by: 1023 South U.S. 27 • St. Johns, MI • 48879 Phone: 800.274.7426 • Fax: 989.224.0330 TTY: 989.224.0246 • E-mail: . Web site:

  2. Michigan’s Assistive Technology Resource • The overall purpose of MATR is to provide information services, support materials, technical assistance, and training to local and intermediate school districts in Michigan to increase their capacity to address the assistive technology needs of students with disabilities. • MATR’s Web site is: • Services to schools are FREE and include: • Support to IEP team members during the process of considering AT. • Equipment loan program to schools for trials of AT. • Software loan library for parents and school personnel. • Training/inservice—inservice workshops, intensive trainings, and development of training materials.

  3. This document was produced and distributed through an IDEA Mandated Activities Project for Michigan’s Assistive Technology Resource awarded by the Michigan Department of Education. The opinions expressed herein do not necessarily reflect the position or policy of the Michigan Department of Education, the Michigan State Board of Education, or the U.S. Department of Education, and no endorsement is inferred. This document is in the public domain and may be copied for further distribution when proper credit is given. For further information or inquiries about this project, contact the Michigan Department of Education, Office of Special Education and Early Intervention Services, P.O. Box 30008, Lansing, Michigan 48909. STATEMENT OF COMPLIANCE WITH FEDERAL LAW The Michigan Department of Education complies with all Federal laws and regulations prohibiting discrimination, and with all requirements of the U.S. Department of Education.

  4. Compliance with Title IX What Title IX is: Title IX of the Education Amendments of 1972 is the landmark federal law that bans sex discrimination in schools, whether it is in curricular, extra-curricular, or athletic activities. Title IX states: “No person in the U.S. shall, on the basis of sex be excluded from participation in, or denied the benefits of, or be subject to discrimination under any educational program or activity receiving federal aid.” The Michigan Department of Education (MDE) is in compliance with Title IX of the Education Amendments of 1972, as amended, 20 U.S.C. 1681 et seq. (Title IX), and its implementing regulation, at 34 C.F.R. Part 106, which prohibits discrimination based on sex. The MDE, as a recipient of federal financial assistance from the United States Department of Education (USDOE), is subject to the provisions of Title IX. MDE does not discriminate based on gender in employment or in any educational program or activity that it operates. The designated individual at the Michigan Department of Education for inquiries and complaints regarding Title IX is: Ms. Roberta E. Stanley Director Office of Administrative Law and Federal Relations Michigan Department of Education Hannah Building 608 West Allegan P.O. Box 30008 Lansing, Michigan 48909 Phone: 517.335.0436 E-Mail:

  5. Single Switch Assistive Technology The Basics

  6. Objectives • Define assistive technology and services. • Identify appropriate assistive technology consideration. • Acquire foundation knowledge of assistive technology team function. • Learn what a single switch is and the various types. • Understand how and what a single switch operates. • Identify potential users. • Explore single switch software.

  7. IDEA ‘97 & Assistive Technology The Individuals with Disabilities Education Act IDEA ‘97 (Public Law 105-17) mandates the provision of assistive technology and offers clear definitions of assistive technology devices and services.

  8. Legal Definition Assistive Technology Device Any item, piece of equipment or product system, whether acquired commercially off the shelf, modified, or customized—that is used to increase, maintain, or improve the functional capabilities of children with disabilities. (Section 300.5)

  9. Legal Definition Assistive Technology Service • (a) Evaluation of the needs of a child with a disability, including a functional evaluation of the child in the child’s customary environment; • (b) Purchasing, leasing, or otherwise providing for the acquisition of assistive technology devices by children with disabilities; • (c) Selecting, designing, fitting, customizing, adapting, applying, retaining, repairing, or replacing assistive technology devices; • (d) Coordinating and use of other therapies, interventions, or services with assistive technology devices, such as those associated with existing education and rehabilitation plans and programs; • (e) Training or technical assistance for a child with a disability or, if appropriate, that child’s family; and • (f) Training or technical assistance for professionals (including individuals or rehabilitation services), employers, or other individuals who provide services to employ, or are otherwise substantially involved in the major life functions of children with disabilities. (Section 300.6)

  10. IDEA Facts Individuals with Disabilities Act (IDEA ‘97) mandates that all children with disabilities are entitled to a Free and Appropriate Public Education (FAPE) in the Least Restrictive Environment (LRE). • Schools are required to provide Assistive Technology at no cost to the parents if it is needed for a student to receive a free appropriate education. • The Individual Education Program team determines what constitutes “free and appropriate” and must decide on a case by case basis for each individual student. • Assistive Technology device ownership remains with the public agency and State law governs whether parents are liable for loss, theft, or damage due to negligence or misuse.

  11. IDEA Facts IDEA ‘97 also requires IEP teams to consider the assistive technology needs of students during the development of an IEP. Section 614 (d)(3)(B) Consideration of Special Factors.- The IEP Team shall—(v) consider whether the child requires assistive technology devices and services.

  12. Use of a Consideration Framework • Assistive technology consideration must be tailored to meet the student’s individual needs. • A decision making framework is helpful in determining a student’s assistive technology needs.

  13. Example of a Framework for AT Consideration • SETT • Student Environment Tasks Tools • by • Joy Zabala • • SETT is a framework that assists teams in the consideration process. • Critical elements of SETT: • Process • Communication • Multiple perspectives • Collaboration • Flexibility • Pertinent information

  14. SETT By Joy Zabala (1994) What are the student’s special needs and abilities? What does the students need to be able to do that is difficult or impossible to do independently at this time? STUDENT What are the functional areas of concern? What are the student’s current abilities? What activities take place in the environment? Where will the student participate- classroom, home, community, therapy? ENVIRONMENT What materials, equipment, supports, resources are available? What is the physical arrangement? What specific tasks occur in the environments which enable progress toward mastery of IEP goals and objectives? What activities is the student expected to do? TASKS Tools are devices and services- everything that is needed to help the student succeed. Tools must be student centered. TOOLS Describe tool features that are needed. Tools are on a continuum from no/low, mid, high.

  15. What is a Single Switch?

  16. What is a Single Switch? Assistive Technology definition: A device that adapts equipment for individuals with disabilities to improve access to environment, movement, communication and computers.

  17. Individuals who utilize switches for access may need a considerable amount of time in which to develop the proficient skills. As all motor and cognitive skills these are best learned from an early age with suitable activities and teaching strategies.

  18. Basic Single Switch Components - mono plug - -cord - - momentary contact switch -

  19. Potential Single Switch Users? • Individuals with upper extremity impairments including: Poor Fine Motor Skills (coordination) Severe limitations in upper extremity movement • Young children/early computer users • Individuals with cognitive disabilities • Individuals with visual impairments • Individuals with unintelligible speech

  20. Upper Extremity Limitations Impacting Computer Use Individuals with upper extremity motor impairments or limitations may have difficulties in the following areas: • Turning computer power switches on and off • Accessing keyboard, targeting correct keys, holding keys down too long, etc. • Operating a mouse effectively A computer properly adapted with single switch technology can allow individuals with disabilities and/or limitations an improved quality of life.

  21. Considerations for Switch Access & Assessment • Reliability of motor movement • Endurance level & efficiency of movement • Ease of performing movement • Previous successful movements • Reaction time • Activation and release time • Positioning

  22. Connecting a Single Switch

  23. Single Switch Hardware • Types of Switches • Mechanical • Electronic • Mounting and Positioning Devices • Switch Interfaces

  24. Mechanical Single Switches 4 1 2 3 3 1 2 5 4 5 6 3

  25. Electronic Single Switches 2 1 2

  26. Single Switch Feedback It is important to consider the following types: • Auditory • Tactile • Visual • Kinesthetic

  27. Single Switch Mounting Devices 1 1 3 1 2 2 3

  28. Single Switch Mounting Devices 1 1 3 1 2 2 3

  29. More Single Switch Mounting Devices 1 1 3 1 2 2 3

  30. More Single Switch Mounting Devices 1 1 3 1 2 2 3

  31. What Can a Single Switch Operate? • Computer • Power wheel chair • Augmentative Alternative Communication (AAC) devices • Toys • Classroom tools • Electronic aides to daily living (EADLS)

  32. Connecting a Single Switch

  33. Connecting a Single Switch to Computers Basically, a switch acts like a left mouse click.

  34. Connecting a Single Switchto Computers • Switch Interface • Switch Adapted Mouse • Track Ball mouse • Intellikeys • USB Mouse Adapters

  35. Power Mobility Single Switch • Power wheelchairs may be operated with a single switch or multiple switches. Photo credit: Enabling Devices

  36. Single Switch AAC Activation • Some communication devices are a single switch or can be activated by a single switch plugged into it. • Some have only one message repeated each time it is depressed, or levels of messages 1 2 3

  37. Single Switch AAC Activation • Some communication devices can be operated with a single switch. • Single switch activated devices require a scanning feature to move between choices. 1 2

  38. Switch Adapted Toys and Classroom Tools • Most battery toys may be adapted to operate with a single switch. • Adapting classroom tools with a switch increases participation.

  39. Example of Switch Adapted Activity 1 2 3

  40. Single Switch EADLS • These devices allow control over environment with a single switch. • Some devices have scanning features that have the ability to operate appliances. 3 1 2

  41. Single Switch Software