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Developments in the Israeli-Arab Conflict 1960s-1980s. PLO Created – Founded 1964 Palestine Liberation Organization . Founded in 1964 as a Palestinian nationalist umbrella organization dedicated to the establishment of an independent Palestinian state.

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PLO Created – Founded 1964

Palestine Liberation Organization

Founded in 1964 as a Palestinian nationalist umbrella organization dedicated to the establishment of an independent Palestinian state.

Charter stated Palestinians had a right to self-determination and were willing to fight to regain their homeland.

Charter stated that Jews of Palestinian origin could continue to live within the liberated country of Palestine, which would be secular and democratic.

Yasser Arafat becomes leader of PLO and Fatah political group. Continues to lead it until his death in 2004.

KEY POINT: PLO leads liberation movement of Palestine for decades, mostly from outside of the country. Arafat leader for most of its existence. PLO considered representative of Palestinian people.

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June 5-10 1967 Six-Day War

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  • The Facts
  • Israel attacks Egypt; defeats Arab armies in Six Day War; OCCUPIES West Bank, Gaza, East
  • Jerusalem, Golan Heights and Sinai Peninsula.
  • 275 Israelis and 12,000 Egyptians died in Six Day War
  • Arab army led by Arab Nationalist Gamal Abdul Nasser
  • KEY POINT: Israel controls ALL territory in the country now . Gaza Strip and West Bank are referred to as Occupied Territories. UN Resolution 242 addresses land taken in this war.
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Developments of the 1970s & early 1980s

  • October 1973: Yom Kippur War. Syria and Egypt surprise Israel with attacks. Most fighting down in Sinai and Golan Heights. At start of war, Arabs winning – looking for vindication from 1967 war. Israel wins
  • March 26, 1979: Israel & Egypt signed a peace treaty in
  • Washington D.C. which ends a 30-year state of war.
  • Agreement signed by Anwar Sadat and Menachem
  • Begin, brokered by President Jimmy Carter.
  • 1982 Sabra & Shatila Massacre in Lebanon – Israel invades Lebanon in attempt to
  • eliminate PLO. Carries out Sabra and Shatila – massacre led by Ariel Sharon. Well-
  • known as deliberate massacre.

Key Point: Conflict continues to cause wars between Israel and neighbors, violence against Palestinian people; but peace agreement made between Israel and Egypt.

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1987: The First Intifada – Palestinian Uprising

Key Point: Intifada was grassroots movement organized and carried out by the people to resist Israeli occupation and oppression. Successful in gaining international attention.