Africa Regional Implementation Meeting, 26-30 October 2009, Addis Ababa, Ethiopia Africa Review Report on Sustainable Consumption and Production Ms. Jane B. Nyakang’o Secretary, African Roundtable on Sustainable Consumption & Production
Presentation Layout • What is SCP? • Major Trends and Emerging Issues • Progress and Achievements • Implementation Challenges and Constraints • Lessons Learned and Way Forward • Conclusions
Why do we need SCP? “The major cause of the continued deterioration of the global environment are the unsustainable patterns of consumption and production, particularly in industrialised countries, which is a matter of grave concern, aggravating poverty and imbalances.” Agenda 21 (Chap. 4) PFIA 21 (Section 28) JPOI ( Chap III)
Goals for a SCP Programme Changes in Production & Consumption
AFRICA-KEY STATISTICS • 53 countries; Population:958 million • 20.4 per cent of the global land area • 13 per cent of the world’s population(61% population rural) • Only 1.7 per cent of the global Gross Domestic Product (GDP) and 2% of the world trade • The region is large and diverse (a wide range of HDI). The rrecommended approach for promoting SCP will vary from country to country.
Economic Growth and Welfare • African economies remain insufficiently diversified. In 2005, agricultural raw materials, ores and metals and fuels represented 68% of the region’s exports . • Agriculture remains an important sector in much of the sub-Saharan Africa(SSA). It provides 57% of all employment. • The continent still lags behind in industrial performance. Environmental best practices need to be incorporated at these early stages of industrialization • SSA is not on track to achieve any of the Millennium Development Goals (MDGs) . Many Africans remain trapped in dire poverty.
Socio-Demographic Trends • Population growth is still strong . From 520 million in 1990, population is expected to reach 1.3 billion by 2030. • SSA’s population is very young. Population aged 15 to 59 is expected to grow from 456 million in 2010 to 758 million in 2030. This young population structure represents a particular challenge for African countries for education and employment, and for the structural transformation of the economies. • Current rate of urbanization in Africa of around 3.5 percent per year. By 2030, the proportion of Africa’s urbanized population is expected to reach 53.5 percent, compared to 39 percent in 2005. This fast rate of urbanization places strain on infrastructure and other services.
Major Trends/Emerging Issues • Africa has the highest urbanization rate in the world which has a strong impact on patterns and impacts of consumption. Growing urban middle class adopting western consumption patterns • The continent lags behind all others in energy use while energy production relies heavily on fossil fuels despite significant renewable energy potential. • Access to freshwater is worsening in the region and increased water scarcity in the future implies a need for efficient water resources management. • Urbanization and increasing motorization in SSA have resulted in degradation of air quality in large cities
Major Trends/Emerging Issues • Solid and hazardous waste management is one of the major challenges in the promotion of SCP in the region • The tourism industry in Africa is characterized by a large number of Small and Medium Enterprises (SMEs) that lack the capacity to integrate sustainable tourism principles • Africa is undergoing a severe process of deforestation. From 1990 to 2005, deforestation took place at a rate of 0.7% per year versus 0.2% at the global level. • Compared to the rest of the world, the average African’s ecological footprint is small. However, several African countries already have a footprint larger than their bio-capacity per capita.
SCP perspective for African countries • Strong linkages between poverty, environmental degradation and under-development in the region . Overall priority of a programme on SCP in Africa should be to provide the basic needs of the poor without undermining the natural resource base and destroying ecosystems on which everybody depends. • Policies and actions supporting SCP can serve to bolster poverty reduction efforts and support sustainable long term growth and help to meet the MDGs. • There are many opportunities in Africa to “leapfrog” towards more SCP patterns.
People vs. nature How much “nature” is available? ?
AFRICA’S FOOTPRINT AND BIOCAPACITY, AND WORLD BIOCAPACITY, PER CAPITA1961–2003
Which Investments Are Most Effective?( HDI + overshoot) / $ Building Resilience Leapfrogging
A21, PFIA 21 and JPOI Commitmentson SCP • Development of a 10-YFP in support of regional and national initiatives to accelerate the shift towards SCP. • Increase investments in Cleaner production and eco-efficiency. • Development of policies and strategies on SCP patterns and Integration of these into sustainable development policies, programmes and strategies. • Enhancing CESR and accountability. • Encouraging sustainable development considerations in decision-making, including on national and local development planning, investment in infrastructure, business development and public procurement. • Promote energy for sustainable development • Promote an integrated approach to policy making for transport services • Prevent and minimize waste and maximize reuse and recycling. Renew the commitment to sound management of chemicals and of hazardous wastes • Promote sustainable tourism development • Undertake research on consumption and production.
Development of the African 10-YFP(1) • Institutionalizationof the African Roundtable on Sustainable Consumption and Production in 2004 • Africa is the first region to have developed a 10-YFP on SCP, endorsed by AMCEN and high-level launch in May 2006 in Addis Ababa. • The strategic focus of the 10 YFP Linking SCP with the challenges of meeting basic needs.
The priority areas of the African 10-YFP • Provision of affordable and sustainable energy for productive use • Water provision and efficient utilization • Urban development and sanitation • Improvement of the competitiveness of African Industries in the global market
Africa is at the forefront of the global Marrakech Process on the 10-YFP • Has a regional 10-YFP approved by AMCEN and included in its workplan • Created a regional institutional mechanism –the ARSCP • ARSCP organises regional roundtables– 6th roundtable 7-9th June 2010 in Egypt • Have a Marrakech Task Force on Cooperation with Africa as the only region-focussed taskforce under the global mechanism
Progress and Achievements • In addition to several regional energy infrastructure projects to increase access and progress in the means of implementation, off-grid systems based on renewable energy have been developed in rural areas of many countries • Some countries are on track in meeting the MDGs on water and sanitation while an increasing number of countries are undertaking policy, legal and institutional reforms and developing strategies for water resources development and management based on the Integrated Water Resources Management • Urban centers in the region have benefited through global urban management programs. Many countries are beginning to put in place the strategic policy and institutional framework to address some of the transport-related problems in cities.
Progress and Achievements • Cleaner production is being promoted through thus far ten National Cleaner Production Centers in the region and industrial environmental policies are being developed in some countries • African business organizations are participating in the Global Compact initiative and several companies have become members of the World Business Council on Sustainable Development • In addition to a number of measures taken at national, sub-regional and regional levels to improve agricultural production, there is an increasing number of initiatives in organic food production • Many African countries have ratified major chemicals-related and waste-related conventions while a number of projects are under way to implement regional action plans for the implementation of the Strategic Approach to International Chemicals Management in the Africa region. Many African countries have adopted policies and legislation on hazardous wastes and are implementing activities to support the environmentally sound management of hazardous wastes
Progress and Achievements • Many African countries have adopted the Global Code of Ethics for Tourism and are reporting on progress in implementation. There have been many capacity building initiatives on sustainable tourism and some countries have started to adopt policies that create opportunities for the poor within tourism • In most countries there are examples of addressing SCP-relevant topics, albeit in an isolated fashion. Few economic instruments are in use in African countries and little progress has been made in the area of Sustainable Public Procurement • Some universities have embarked upon introducing sustainable development into their education and training programmes
Status of SCP in Africa • Impact and penetration of SCP activities is still very limited in most countries. • Few key activities conducted in most countries as part of the 10 YFP. • SP is in progress. Several examples for SP; NCPCs have achieved much, but still not enough to create national level impacts. • Few examples for SC. Regional capacity for promoting SC is far less developed than for SP.
Challenges and Constraints • Poor Education and lack of awareness on the benefits of SCP among all stakeholders • Government failures (lack of legislation and/or enforcement; weak recognition of SCP in most policies; weak institutional capacity for monitoring and use of economic instruments; lack of decentralization to local authorities;) • Lack of human and technical capacity (lack of capacity for product development and formulating bankable CP projects in industry; lack of capacity on SCP tools in government; wide scale reliance on obsolete technologies; lack of information on emerging clean technologies)
Challenges and Constraints (contd) (iv)Economic (Financial instability of NCPCs; under-pricing of natural resources; lack of appropriate financing mechanisms for SCP investments; lack of financial incentives-for example for RETs; widespread poverty) (v) Systemic (lack of monitoring ; lack of systematic training of employees and lack of R&D in Industry; lack of reliable data on pollution and resources use; inadequate research on SCP; consumer traditions) (vi) Organizational(poor institutional setting; absence of collaborative projects and exchange programmes in the region to facilitate knowledge sharing)
Key Lessons Learned (1) • Political will and commitment is essential to the effective implementation of the African 10-YFP. The leadership and guidance being provided by the AU Commission, ECA and UNEP in the further development and implementation of the Program should be maintained, if not enhanced. The region’s cooperation with development agencies, such as the Government of Germany and the Marrakech Task Forces should be fostered. • A basic condition for SCP is to achieve general awareness and understanding of the concept among all people. Education curriculum to include the concept. • It is necessary for Governments to develop, in partnership with a wide range of stakeholders, national SCP strategies or action plans reflecting a country’s specific priorities. Capacity building of public sector is crucial. • Resource Mobilisation process from both domestic and international sources to establish innovative funding mechanisms for SCP investments
Key Lessons Learned (2) • Need for mainstreaming of SCP in the priorities and decision making criteria of bilateral and multilateral development financing agencies. • The International NCPC programme has led to the development of critical capacity and institutional strengthening in developing countries and generated useful results. However there is a need strengthen the programme strategy, utilization of programmatic funding and improvement of programme mangement. • Create demand for SCP, rather than focusing on the supply side. Such demand is created when enforcement of legislation is practiced, suitable economic incentives are established and efficiency improvements offered by SCP provide a competitive edge. • Visible implementation of SCP activities at an early stage is important to demonstrate the concept and to show that it can have a significant impact on the production-consumption system. Ex: government green procurement programs, waste recycling schemes, SMEs support programs for Cleaner Production, Introduction of CFL lamps, Incentives for Solar Water Heaters and Solar Panels, taxes on plastic bags, etc.
The Way Forward • Institutional and Policy Mechanisms(National SCP Programs, Legislation and economic instruments, SCP indicators, DSM programmes, donors programmes, etc) • Supporting tools and instruments(CP, SPP, Eco-labelling, ISWM plans, CESR, LCA, etc) • Education for SCP(curriculum development, use of media, best practice databases, centers of excellence, etc) • Means of implementation (Financial resources, technology transfer, capacity building, information and outreach, partnerships etc)
Concluding Note • SCP provides an ideal framework for achieving development goals . • The underdevelopment of the region adds a new dimension to the SCP challenges in Africa. The same under development provides a significant opportunity to leapfrog to more resource efficient economies and sustainable resource use and build Green Economies. • Use the opportunity provided by the political commitment through AMCEN, the leadership and guidance being provided by the AU Commission, ECA and UNEP,the work of the Marrakech Task Force on Cooperation with Africa and the other Marrakech Task Forces, and the ARSCP for the further development and implementation of the African 10-YFP and other SCP initiatives. • Lessons learnt from pilots will help in sectoral policy and strategy review and ultimately in mainstreaming SCP in national policies/strategies • Important to focus on some fast track projects and mobilize international/regional/local support.
Priority projects identified during the Ad-Hoc Expert Group Meeting on the SDRA • Capacity building for National SCP Action Plans • The African Local SCP Initiative • Regional programme on Resource Efficiency and Cleaner Production (RECP) including building capacities of NCPCs and SCP institutions • The African Eco-labelling Mechanism • Promoting an Integrated Solid Waste Management (ISWM) System in Africa • Education for Sustainable Consumption and Production in Africa • Sustainable Building and Construction in Africa • Promotion of small-scale renewables and biomass-based co-generation • Regional Knowledge Management and Information Exchange on SCP in Africa