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Chemical and Physical Features of Seawater and the World Ocean

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  1. Chemical and Physical Features of Seawater and the World Ocean “If there is magic on this planet, it is contained in water.” Loren Eiseley “Well, me don’t swim too tough so me don’t go in the water too deep.” Bob Marley

  2. What is Water ? • Introduction – the stuff covers 70% of the Earth • Brainstorming activity • Chemical & Physical Properties of Water • Categorization activity • Defend your categories • If time permits… why the answer to life is 104.5º

  3. Chemical & Physical Properties • Physical property– properties that describe a substance without changing the identity of the substance. • Physical change – change that does not result in the production of a new substance, only the appearance of the substance • Chemical property– properties that describe how a substance changes into a completely different substance • Chemical change – change that results in the production of another substance

  4. Common Properties of Water

  5. References Castellano, A. (2006) “Victoria Beach” Castro, P. & M.E. Huber (2005) Marine Biology, 5th ed. McGraw-Hill Higher Education, Boston, MA. “Chemical Properties of Water” Retrieved on Feb 3, 2007 from “floating water 5” (2006) wester Lower, S. (2007) “H2O a gentle introduction to the structure of water.” Retrieved on Feb 3, 2007 from Nybakken, J.W. & M.D. Bertness (2005) Marine Biology, An Ecological Approach, 6th ed. Pearson Education, Inc., San Francisco. Perlman, H. (2006) “Water properties” Water Science for Schools. USGS. Retrieved on Feb 3, 2007 from Petrucci, R.H. (1982) General Chemistry Principles and Modern Applications, Macmillan Publishing Co. Inc., New York.

  6. O H H The Water Molecule • Two hydrogen atoms, one oxygen atom • H atoms form 105º angle • This angle produces an asymmetrical dipole. Slight (+) charge on the H atoms and slight (-) charge on the O atoms. 105º

  7. O O O H H H H H H The Water Molecule • These slight charges cause the (+) H atoms of one water molecule to attract the (-) O atoms of other water molecules. • These weak bonds are called hydrogen bonds. • Water can hydrogen bond with other substances aside from itself.

  8. Why does ice float? Density-Temperature Relationship Background • Temperature is a measure of kinetic energy (KE). As KEdecreases, hydrogen bonds stay formed and break less. Water molecules stay closer together until… Explanation • As the temperature approaches 4ºC, less dense ice clusters begin to form in the liquid. • At 0ºC when all water molecules become locked in the rigid ice lattice, the hydrogen bonds actually hold molecules farther apart than at 4ºC. This creates spaces making the water less dense.

  9. Why does ice float? Density-Temperature Relationship Graph

  10. How can water bugs “stride” across water without breaking the surface?Surface tension and cohesion • The cohesion or mutual attraction of water molecules creates a flexible barrier on the surface of water. • This helps support aquatic insects such as water striders (Halobates sp.)

  11. Why do fish not get electrocuted when lightning strikes the ocean? Conductivity Explanation • Conductivity is a property that measures the ability of a substance to transmit heat, electricity, or sound. • Pure water is not a good conductor of electricity. Its conductivity is about 20 dS/m. (Compare with silver – the highest conductivity with 63 x 106 S/m) • In addition, the electrical charge of lightning usually spreads instantaneously along the surface of the water from the location of the strike and to a lesser degree below the surface at the strike site. Fish in other areas are not affected.

  12. Why do coastal areas have slower temperature changes than inland areas?Heat capacity Background • Heat – energy of molecular motion • Water can absorb or give up heat by conduction (molecular exchange of heat) or convection (mixing) Explanation • Water can hold heat longer and release heat more slowly than land. • Temperature differential between land and ocean will cause uneven heating of air masses which drive winds and moderate any drastic temperature changes. Off-shore breeze On-shore breeze

  13. Why don’t fats and oils dissolve in water?Polarity • Fats and oils are nonpolar molecules. • These compounds do not have slight regions of charge like water does. • Therefore water molecules are not attracted to nonpolar molecules and actually can be repelled by them. • Basis for cell membranes and the water repellency of marine mammals and birds.

  14. Why does water dissolve more substances than any other common liquid?The Universal Solvent • Because water is polar, it dissolves most substances, especially other polar molecules and compounds composed of ions, atoms or molecules that carry an electrical charge. • These ionic compounds are often called salts. • NaCl (salt) most common dissolved salt in ocean. There are many others. • Seawater is a solution of these salts. Salt crystal

  15. Seawater Sources of salts and dissolved solids: • Erosion of rocks and soil • Solutes released from rivers • Breakdown of organisms • Condensation of rain from the atmosphere • Releases from hydrothermal vents Seawater is • 96.5% water • 3.5% dissolved compounds

  16. Salinity Total amount of dissolved salts in seawater. • Measured in parts per thousand (ppt) • Grams of salt left behind when 1000g of water evaporate • Average value 35 pptor 35‰ • Range from 0‰ near river mouths to 40% in the dead sea. • Globally, seawater salinity remains constant. Rule of constant proportions states that the percentage of various ions in seawater remains constant.

  17. Surface Salinities of the Oceans

  18. Dissolved compounds in seawater • Inorganic substances (salts, nutrients) • Dissolved gases • Organic compounds (fats, oils, vitamins, amino acids, proteins) • Nitrates and phosphates (usually in excess as pollution) • Pollution (DDT, PCBs, chlorinated hydrocarbons that are synthetic)