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BLACK HOLE IN MANET. SUBMITTED TO:-- SUBMITTED BY:-- Dr. SAPNA GAMBHIR INDRAJEET KUMAR CSE DEPTT. MNW/887/2K11. Content . Introduction to network Types Wireless network Mobile ad-hoc network (MANET) Security issues Attacks in MANET Detection & Resolving Query session Reference.

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black hole in manet

BLACK HOLE IN MANET

SUBMITTED TO:-- SUBMITTED BY:--

Dr. SAPNA GAMBHIR INDRAJEET KUMAR

CSE DEPTT. MNW/887/2K11

content
Content
  • Introduction to network
  • Types
  • Wireless network
  • Mobile ad-hoc network (MANET)
  • Security issues
  • Attacks in MANET
  • Detection & Resolving
  • Query session
  • Reference
introduction
Introduction

NETWORKING

Area based

Medium based

LAN

WAN

MAN

WIRED

WIRELESS

wireless networks
Wireless Networks
  • Need:Access computing and communication services, on the move
  • Infrastructure-based Networks
    • traditional cellular systems (base station infrastructure)
  • Wireless LANs
    • Infrared (IrDA) or radio links (Wavelan)
    • very flexible within the reception area; ad-hoc networks possible
    • low bandwidth compared to wired networks (1-10 Mbit/s)
  • Ad hoc Networks
    • useful when infrastructure not available, impractical, or expensive
    • military applications, rescue, home networking
many applications
Many Applications
  • Personal area networking
    • cell phone, laptop, ear phone, wrist watch
  • Military environments
    • soldiers, tanks, planes
  • Civilian environments
    • taxi cab network
    • meeting rooms
    • sports stadiums
    • boats, small aircraft
  • Emergency operations
    • search-and-rescue
    • policing and fire fighting
challenges in mobile environments
Challenges in Mobile Environments
  • Limitations of the Wireless Network
    • packet loss due to transmission errors
    • variable capacity links
    • frequent disconnections/partitions
    • limited communication bandwidth
  • Limitations Imposed by Mobility
    • dynamically changing topologies/routes
    • lack of mobility awareness by system/applications
  • Limitations of the Mobile Computer
    • short battery lifetime
    • limited capacities
manet mobile adhoc n w
MANET (Mobile ADHOC N/W)

Introduction….

  • Collection of mobile wireless nodes
  • Links are made & broken in arbitrarilyway.
  • No fixed infrastructure
  • Constrained resources

Problem…

Design a routing algorithm that are secure

routing protocols
Routing Protocols
  • Proactive protocols
    • Traditional distributed shortest-path protocols
    • Maintain routes between every host pair at all times
    • Based on periodic updates; High routing overhead
    • Example: DSDV (destination sequenced distance vector)
  • Reactive protocols
    • Determine route if and when needed
    • Source initiates route discovery
    • Example: DSR (dynamic source routing),AODV.
  • Hybrid protocols
    • Adaptive; Combination of proactive and reactive
    • Example : ZRP (zone routing protocol)
security requirements in manet
Security Requirements in MANET

Threats

  • Availability
  • Data Confidentiality
  • Data Integrity
  • Non-repudiation
  • Attacks
    • External attacks
    • Internal attacks
    • Passive attacks
    • Active attacks
attack in manet
Attack in Manet
  • Active attack & passive attack
types of attack cont
Types of attack ( cont…)
  • Gray hole attack:-- As soon as it receive the packet from neighbor the attacker drop the packet.
  • Type of active attack.
  • In some other gray hole attacks the attacker node behaves maliciously for the time until the packets are dropped and then switch to their normal behavior . Due this behavior it’s very difficult for the network to figure out such kind of attack.
  • Gray hole attack is also termed as node misbehaving attack.
types of attack cont1
Types of attack (cont…)
  • Warm hole attack:-- Wormhole attack is a severe attack in which two attackers placed themselves strategically in the network. The attackers then keep on hearing the network, record the wireless data.
black hole attack
BLACK HOLE ATTACK
  • A kind of denial of service where a malicious node can attract all packets by falsely claiming a fresh route to the destination and then absorb them without forwarding them to the destination.
  • Co operative Black hole means the malicious nodes act in a group
route requests in aodv
Route Requests in AODV

Y

Broadcast transmission

Z

S

E

F

B

C

M

L

J

A

G

H

D

K

I

N

Represents transmission of RREQ

route request and route reply
Route Request and Route Reply
  • Route Request (RREQ) includes the last known sequence number for the destination
  • An intermediate node may also send a Route Reply (RREP) provided that it knows a more recent path than the one previously known to sender
  • Intermediate nodes that forward the RREP, also record the next hop to destination
  • A routing table entry maintaining a reverse path is purged after a timeout interval
  • A routing table entry maintaining a forward path is purged if not used for a active_route_timeout interval
link failure
Link Failure
  • A neighbor of node X is considered active for a routing table entry if the neighbor sent a packet within active_route_timeout interval which was forwarded using that entry
  • Neighboring nodes periodically exchange hello message
  • When the next hop link in a routing table entry breaks, all activeneighbors are informed
  • Link failures are propagated by means of Route Error (RERR) messages, which also update destination sequence numbers
the black hole problem in current aodv protocol
The black hole problem in current AODV protocol
  • AODV is an important on-demand routing protocol that creates routes only when desired by the source node.
  • When a node requires a route to a destination, it initiates a route discovery process within the network. It broadcasts a route request (RREQ) packet to its neighbors. (Figure 2)
the black hole problem in current aodv protocol cont1
The black hole problem in current AODV protocol (cont.)
  • Once the RREQ reaches the destination or an intermediate node with a fresh enough route, the destination or intermediate node responds by unicasting a route reply (RREP) packet (Figure 3) back to the neighbor from which it first received the RREQ.
the black hole problem in current aodv protocol cont3
The black hole problem in current AODV protocol (cont.)
  • Any intermediate node may respond to the RREQ message if it has a fresh enough route.
  • The malicious node easily disrupts the correct functioning of the routing protocol and make at least part of the network crash.
solution
Solution…
  • Slightly modified AODV protocol by introducing Data Routing Information (DRI) Table (reliability table).
another approach
Another approach…
  • Fidelity level:-----
  • Collecting responses.
  • Choosing a response to forward data.
  • Updating the fidelity level.
  • Receiving acknowledgement and broadcasting fidelity packets
conclusion and future work cont
Conclusion and future work (cont.)
  • In this seminar we have studied the routing security issues of MANETs, described the cooperative black hole attack that can be mounted against a MANET and proposed a feasible solution for it in the AODV protocol.
references
References…
  • Bo Sun,YongGuan,JianChen,Udo , “Detecting Black-hole Attack in Mobile Ad Hoc Network” , The institute of Electrical Engineers, Printed and published by IEEE, 2003.
  • Hongmei Deng, Wei Li, and Dharma P. Agrawal, “Routing security in Wireless Ad-hoc Network”,IEEE Communications Magazine, Issue 40, pp 70–75,2002
  • LathaTamilselvan, Dr. V Sankaranarayanan “Prevention of Co-operative Black Hole Attack in MANET” JOURNAL OF NETWORKS, VOL. 3, NO. 5, MAY 2008