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Marketing for Hospitality and Tourism. Kotler, Bowen and Makens. Designing and Managing Products. Chapter 9. Learning Objectives. Define the term product , including the core , facilitating , supporting , and augmented product.

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learning objectives
Learning Objectives
  • Define the term product, including the core, facilitating, supporting, and augmented product.
  • Explain how accessibility, atmosphere, customer interaction with the service delivery system, customer interaction with other customers, and customer coproduction are all critical elements to keep in mind when designing a product.
  • Understand branding and the conditions that support branding.
  • The new product development process.
  • Understand how the product life cycle can be applied to the hospitality industry.
what is a product
What is a Product?

A product is anything that can be offered to a market for attention, acquisition, use, or consumption that might satisfy a want or need.

It includes physical objects, services, places, organizations, and ideas.

product levels
Product Levels

Augmented Products

Supporting Products

Facilitating Products

Core Products

augmented product
Augmented Product

Augmented Product

Customer Interaction

Customer Participation



atmosphere s effect on purchase behavior
Atmosphere’s Effect onPurchase Behavior

Attention-Creating Medium

Message-Creating Medium

Effect-Creating Medium

Mood-Creating Medium

elements of branding strategy
Elements of Branding Strategy

Brand Equity





brand positioning
Brand Positioning

Beliefs and Values



new product development
New Product Development







and Testing










idea generation
Idea Generation

Idea Generation

Internal Sources

External Environment

External Sources






To Whom?



product deletion
Product Deletion


Drop It




Augmented products Additional consumer services and benefits built around the core and actual products.

Aural The dimension of atmosphere relating to volume and pitch.

Brand A name, term, sign, symbol, design, or a combination of these elements that is intended to identify the goods or services of a seller and differentiate them from competitors.

Brand equity The added value endowed on products and services. It may be reflected in the way consumers think, feel, and act with respect to the brand, as well as in the prices, market share, and profitability the brand commands for the firm.

Branding The process of endowing products and services with the power of a brand. It’s all about creating differences between products.

Brand promise The marketer’s vision of what the brand must be and do for consumers.

Consumption phase Takes place when the customer consumes the service.

Core product Answers the question of what the buyer is really buying. Every product is a package of problem-solving services.

Crowdsourcing An open-innovation new-product idea program.


KeyTerms (cont.)

Decline The period when sales fall off quickly and profits drop.

Detachment phase When the customer is through using the product and departs.

Drop The action taken toward a product that may cause harm or customer dissatisfaction.

Facilitating products Those services or goods that must be present for the guest to use the core product.

Growth The product life-cycle stage when a new product’s sales start climbing quickly.

Introduction The product life-cycle stage when a new product is first distributed and made available for purchase.

Joining stage The product life-cycle stage when the customer makes the initial inquiry contact.

Maturity The stage in a product life cycle when sales growth slows or levels off.

Olfactory The dimension of atmosphere relating to scent and freshness.


KeyTerms (cont.)

Phase-out The ideal method of removing an unpopular or unprofitable product; it enables a product to be removed in an orderly fashion.

Product concept A detailed version of a product idea stated in meaningful consumer terms.

Product development Developing the product concept into a physical product to ensure that the product idea can be turned into a workable product.

Product idea Envisioning a possible product that company managers might offer to the market..

Product image The way that consumers picture an actual or potential product.

Run-out Removing a product after existing stock has been depleted; used when sales for an item are low and costs exceed revenues, such as the case of a restaurant serving a crabmeat cocktail with sales of only one or two items per week.

Supporting products Extra products offered to add value to the core product and to help to differentiate it from the competition.

Tactile The dimension of atmosphere relating to softness, smoothness, and temperature.

Visual The dimension of atmosphere relating to color, brightness, size, and shape.