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Basic Chemistry I. Vladimíra Kvasnicová. Composition of Matter. organic / inorganic compound = a substance formed by chemical reaction; it consists of elements in fixed proportions

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Basic chemistry i

Basic Chemistry I

Vladimíra Kvasnicová


Composition of matter
Composition of Matter

  • organic / inorganic

    • compound = a substance formed by chemical reaction;it consists of elements in fixed proportions

    • element = a substance that cannot be decomposed into simpler substances; it consists of atoms with a same number of protons (number of neutrons may vary)

      ---------------------------------------------------------------

    • atom = the smallest part of an element that can exist chemically

    • molecule = the smallest part of a chemical compoundthat can take part in chemical reaction


Composition of matter1
Composition of Matter

structure of atom

  • nucleus: protons (p+) + neutrons (n0)

  • „cloud“ of electrons (e-)

  • mass number A (= nucleon number)

  • proton number Z (= atomic number)

  • neutron number N

  • electroneutrality

  • nuclide

  • isotopes


Composition of matter2

inorganic mater

oxygen (O) 50%

silicon (Si) 25%

aluminium (Al) 7%

iron (Fe) 5%

calcium (Ca) 3%

90%

sodium (Na)

potassium (K)

magnesium (Mg)

hydrogen (H)

titanium (Ti) 0,6%

organic mater

„compounds of carbon“

C, O, H, N

carbon (C)

oxygen (O)

hydrogen (H)

nitrogen (N)

phosphorus (P)

sulfur (S)

Composition of Matter

  • air, blood plasma


Distinguish
Distinguish

  • isotopes = atoms having the same protonnumber but different mass number(isotopes of carbon: 12C, 13C, 14C)

  • element= a substance composed of atoms havingthe same protonnumber(element consists of various isotopes)

  • nuclide = a substance composed of atoms havingthe same proton and mass numbers(substance containing only 12C = nuclide called carbon „12“)

  • atom / molecule / ion(monoatomic, polyatomic - binary, ternary)


Exercise
Exercise

  • nuclide: AZX

  • make groups of:

    a) isotopes

    b) the same elements

    c) the same nuclides


Exercise1
Exercise

  • nuclide: AZX

  • make groups of:

    a) isotopes: iodine, uranium

    b) elements: iodine, uranium, radon

    c) the same nuclides: 3, 8

Calculate number of neutrons of 127I

n0 = 74


Memorize
Memorize

symbols and names of elements

use flash cards


Basic chemistry i

The figure is found at http://www.corrosionsource.com/handbook/periodic/periodic_table.gif(September 2007)


Composition of matter3
Composition of Matter

structure of atom – arrangement of electrons

  • four quantum numbers

    orbital = a region of space in which an electron is most likely to be found

  • principal shells → energy

  • subshells → shape of orbitals

  • degenerate orbitals → space orientation

  • spin (rotation) of electrons


Shapes of orbitals

s

px

py

pz

Shapes of orbitals


Shapes of orbitals1

dyz

dxy

dzx

dx2–y2

dz2

Shapes of orbitals


Composition of matter4
Composition of Matter

structure of atom – arrangement of electrons

  • Pauli´s exclusion principle= no two electrons in the atom can have the same set of quantum numbers

  • Hund´s rule= electron will not enter an orbital containing another electron if an empty orbital of the same energy is available



Basic chemistry i

The figure is found at http://www.corrosionsource.com/handbook/periodic/periodic_table.gif(September 2007)


Composition of matter5
Composition of Matter

structure of atom – arrangement of electrons

  • ground / excitated state

  • valence electrons

  • radicals

  • electronegativity = a measure of the ability of an atom in a molecule to draw bonding electrons to itself

  • chemical bonds


Basic chemistry i

the arrow showes increase of electronegativity

The figure is found at http://www.corrosionsource.com/handbook/periodic/periodic_table.gif(September 2007)


Inorganic compounds
Inorganic Compounds

Oxides anion: O-II

  • acid-forming: nonmetal / oxygen

    • use multiple prefixes (mono, di, tri,...)

  • base-forming: metal / oxygen

    • use sufixes –ous / -ic or (oxidation state)

  • amphoteric

    MnO2, N2O, BaO, CO, K2O, SO2, FeO, Cu2O, CaO


Inorganic compounds1
Inorganic Compounds

Peroxides anion: O2-2 O-I

  • s1 elements (hydrogen and alkali metals): M2O2

  • s2 elements (alkali earth metals): MO2

    sodium peroxide magnesium peroxide

    barium peroxide potassium peroxide

    hydrogen peroxide lithium peroxide


Inorganic compounds2
Inorganic Compounds

Hydroxides anion: (OH)-1

  • basic properties (pH > 7)

  • strong or weak hydroxides

  • metal / hydroxide anion

    • use sufixes –ous / -ic or (oxidation state)

  • ammonium / hydroxide anion

    NaOH, LiOH, NH4OH, Fe(OH)3, Cu(OH)2, Ca(OH)2


Inorganic compounds3
Inorganic Compounds

Acidscation: H+(pH < 7)

1) oxygen free acids

hydro-...................-ic acid

HF, HCl, HBr, HI, H2S, HCN (in aqueous solutions)

anion:-ide

  • monoprotic / diprotic acids


Inorganic compounds4
Inorganic Compounds

Acidscation: H+

2) oxoacids

  • the highest oxidative state per-.....-ic acid

  • higher (or only) oxidative state -ic acid

  • lower oxidative state -ous acid

  • the lowest oxidative state hypo-...-ous acid

    anion:

    -ic acid → -ate

    -ous acid→ -ite


Inorganic compounds5
Inorganic Compounds

Salts

are formed by neutralization:

acid + hydroxide → salt + water

cation: metal or NH4+ derived from the hydroxide(= cation of the hydroxide)

anion:oxygen-free or polyatomic anionderived from the acid (= anion of the acid)


Inorganic compounds6
Inorganic Compounds

Make groups of compounds:

Na2O, HCl, CO2, Na2O2, Ca(OH)2, KClO, HCN, HNO2,

H2S, H2O2, BaO2, PbO2, H2SO3, KOH, MgSO4, NaF,

NH4HCO3, HI, Al(OH)3, HIO4, CdS, MgO2, NaH2PO4

? oxides hydroxides peroxides acids salts