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Parotid salivary gland. Salivary glands :. Pharynx. Sublingual. Submaxillary. Esophagus. Stomach. Liver. Pancreas. Gallbladder. Duodenum. Transverse colon. Ascending colon. Descending colon. Cecum. Jejunum. Sigmoid. Appendix. Ileum. Rectum. Functional Sphincters . UES

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Presentation Transcript
functional sphincters

Parotid salivary gland

Salivaryglands:

Pharynx

Sublingual

Submaxillary

Esophagus

Stomach

Liver

Pancreas

Gallbladder

Duodenum

Transverse

colon

Ascending

colon

Descending

colon

Cecum

Jejunum

Sigmoid

Appendix

Ileum

Rectum

Functional Sphincters

UES

LES

Pyloric

Ileal

IAS

EAS

slide2

To Systemic Circulation

Rates:

ml/min

Aorta

LIVER

HEPATIC

Celiac

(700)

(200)

STOMACH

SPLEEN

Superior

Mesenteric

(700)

(1800) mls/min

Portal

Vein

PANCREAS

SMALL

INTESTINE

Inferior

Mesenteric

(400)

COLON

cross section of the alimentary canal
Cross-Section of the Alimentary Canal

Lymph node

Villus

Epithelium and Mucosa

Muscularis mucosa

Submucosa

(contains most nerves

and bloood vessels)

Circular muscle

Longitudinal muscle

Serosa

(connective tissue)

Myenteric plexus

Submucosal

plexus

Gland in

submucosa

epithelial cell barrier

Epithelial Cell Barrier

  • Microvilli: Brush Border
  • Glycocalyx: Digestive Surface
  • 1. Traps Nutrients
  • 2. Increases Local Viscosity
  • 3. Harbors Enzymes
  • Protective Barrier, Tight Junctions
neural regulation of gi function
Neural Regulation of GI Function

Autonomic Nervous System

- INTRINSIC REGULATION: ENTERIC PLEXI

- EXTRINSIC REGULATION: Central Nervous System

intrinsic neural regulation
Intrinsic Neural Regulation

Myenteric

ganglion

Interganglionic

fiber tract

Circular

muscle

Submucosal

ganglion

Longitudinal

Muscle

200 um

Mucosa

signal integration in the plexi

from CNS

to CNS

(+)

(+)

(-)

Submucosal

plexus

S

(-)

Pressure

receptor

G

S

Mucosa

H+

(+)

Protein

Signal Integration in the Plexi

autonomic nervous system regulation of gi function

Autonomic Nervous System: Regulation of GI Function

Extrinsic Regulation : Primarily Synapses onto Plexi

CNS Autonomics

Sympathetic (generally inhibits GI function); Norepi

Parasympathetic (generally stimulated GI function) Vagus Nerve; Acetylcholine (Ach)

Coordinates Functions through Long Reflexes

Direct Innervation of Vascular Smooth Muscle by Sympathetic Nerves: Inhibits Blood Flow

autonomic nervous system

Parasympathetic

division

Sympathetic

division

Autonomic Nervous System

Pancreas and

Gall Bladder

Vagal

nuclei

CNS

Vagus

nerves

Preganglionic

fibers

Sympathetic

ganglia

Sacral

Spinal cord

Postganglionic fibers

Pelvic nerves

Enteric nervous system

Submucosal

plexus

Myenteric

plexus

Blood

vessels

Smooth

muscle

Secretory

cells

Endocrine

(G) cells

slide11

Hormone: Classical Definition.A Chemical Messenger Produced and Secreted by a Specialized Gland, and Released into the Blood Where it is Circulated to Distant Organs to Elicit a Physiological Response.- Effects are Exerted Relatively Slowly, but for Prolonged Periods

slide12

To Systemic Circulation

Rates:

ml/min

Aorta

LIVER

HEPATIC

Celiac

(700)

(200)

STOMACH

SPLEEN

Superior

Mesenteric

(700)

(1800) mls/min

Portal

Vein

PANCREAS

SMALL

INTESTINE

Inferior

Mesenteric

(400)

COLON

table 1 characteristics of the major gastrointestinal hormones

Local Stimuli Physiologic Circulating

Name Composition for Release Action(s) Half-life

TABLE 1. Characteristics of the Major Gastrointestinal Hormones

Gastrin G17 peptide (2117 mw) peptides, amino acid secretion, 3 min G34 peptide (3988 mw) acids, distention Gastric growth 12 min

Secretin peptide (3056 mw) duodenal acidity pancreatic 3 min bicarbonate secretion

CCK-PZ peptide (3919 mw) fatty acids gallbladder contraction amino acids in pancreatic enzyme 5 min the sm. intestine secretion and growth

(GIP) peptide (5105 mw) glucose, fatty insulin release 21 min Glucose- dependent acids in the small insulinotropic peptide intestine

slide14

Secretin Family: Activates Adenylate Cyclase Secretin Increasing cAMP VIP GIP Glucagon

Gastrin Family: Increases Intracellular Ca2+ Gastrin CCK

Receptor Specificity

slide15

Blood vessels

Lymph vessels

Nerves

Smooth muscle

Connective tissue

lymphocytes

Plasma cells

Eosinophiles

Absorp-

tive cells

Villous

epithelium

Goblet

cells

Crypt

lumen

Crypt

Epithelium

Undifferentiated

Goblet

Mitoses

Endocrine cells

Endocrine cells

Paneth cells

Muscularis

mucosa

slide19

[ Hormone]

in

Blood

Length of Intestine

stimulated

peptide released by actions

Candidate Hormones

Peptide Released by Actions

From, F-cells of pancreatic islets

Pancreatic polypeptide Intestinal Inhibits Pancreatic HCO3- Protein, Fat and Enzyme Secretion Glucose

Motilin ? Distal Gastric Motility Intestinal Motility

Enteroglucagon (GLP-1) Intestinal ? Fat, Sugar

peptide site of action actions

Neurocrines: NANC Neurotransmitters

Peptide Site of Action Actions

VIP Mucosa and Relaxes Muscle; Smooth Muscle Activates Cl- Channels

GRP or Gastric Mucosa Stimulates Gastrin Bombesin Release

Enkephalins Neurons in Mucosa Increases Smooth and Visceral Muscle Muscle Tone

Substance P Salivary Glands Activates Blood Flow

Neuropeptide Y Neurons in Mucosa Decreases Secretion and Visceral Muscle and Sphincter Tone

CCK Enteric and Hypothalamic Inhibits Propulsion Neurons Activates Satiety

NANC: Non-Adrenergic Non-Cholinergic

factor location actions

Factor Location Actions

Paracrine

Somatostatin Stomach: Decreases Gastrin Pyloric Gland Secretion

Histamine* Stomach and Increases Gastric Intestinal Mucosa Acid Secretion

slide23

Regulation of G-Cell Secretion

Vagus nerves

Ach

Ach

Myenteric

Plexus

+

Ach

GRP

Somato-

statin

Cell

Gastrin

Cell

Gastrin

Digested

Protein

H+