Advanced aquaculture of carps and tilapia ponds and cages
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Advanced Aquaculture of Carps and Tilapia – Ponds and Cages. Kevin Fitzsimmons, John Woiwode, R.S.N. Janjua ASA SoyPak Multan, Punjab, Pakistan 14 March 2012. Carp and Tilapia. Carps are most important farmed food fish and tilapia are second.

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Advanced aquaculture of carps and tilapia ponds and cages

Advanced Aquaculture of Carps and Tilapia – Ponds and Cages

Kevin Fitzsimmons, John Woiwode, R.S.N. JanjuaASA SoyPak

Multan, Punjab, Pakistan

14 March 2012

Carp and tilapia
Carp and Tilapia

  • Carps are most important farmed food fish and tilapia are second.

  • Global demand, variety of production systems and geographic regions, some vertically integrated

  • Environmentally sustainable – “Green Aquaculture” (no fish meal required in the diet, no antibiotics, many farms use effluents for crops)

Subsistence and export commodity
Subsistence and Export Commodity

  • Tilapia is unique in its role as a small livestock animal grown by subsistence farmers in developing countries around the world…..

  • And

  • It is widely grown and exported to high value markets to be served in expensive restaurants and grocery stores

  • Commodity or specialty crop - BOTH, like chicken

US Tilapia consumption (imports and domestic)368,295 mt of live weight (equivalent) – 2006437,000 mt of live weight (equivalent) - 2007453,264 mt of live weight (equivalent) – 2008465,953 mt of live weight (equivalent – 2009)579,443 mt of live weight (equivalent – 2010)

Genetic improvements in tilapia
Genetic improvements in tilapia

(From: Mair, G., 2002)

Selective breeding and genetic improvements
Selective breeding and genetic improvements

  • Excellent breeding programs - G.I.F.T. - Malaysia- Genomar - Brazil and Norway- Chitralada – Thailand- TabTim – Thailand (CP Group)- GIFT Excell – Philippines- Molobicus - Philippines- GIFT Bangladesh

  • Several in Mexico

  • YY Supermale - Philippines and Swansea, Egypt and Indonesia

Carp and tilapia in ponds
Carp and tilapia in ponds

  • Extensive ponds

Multiple small cages
Multiple small cages

Irrigation Reservoir, Arizona

Taal Lake, Philippines

Paulo Afonso Reservoir, Brasil

Other small cages
Other small cages

Nile Delta, Egypt

Shrimp Pond, Thailand

Shrimp Pond, Philippines

All tilapia farms have dogs, even cage farms

Integration of aquaculture and agriculture
Integration of aquaculture and agriculture

  • Water pH reduced from 8.3 to 8.0

  • Added 19.7 kg/ha N to 45 kg/ha used in standard fertilization schedule of cotton.

Results integration of aquaculture and agriculture
Results - Integration of aquaculture and agriculture

  • Contributed 2.6 kg/ha P to cotton crop.

Contents Well Water

  • Nutrition

  • Pond Fertilization and Natural Feeds

  • Ingredients and Formulations

  • Manufacture and Preparation

  • Storage, Handling, and Feeding Methods

Nutrition and feeding behaviours
Nutrition and feeding behaviours Well Water

  • Tilapia are omnivores (eat lots of things)

  • Carps are more specialized

  • Both capable of consuming decaying vegetable matter

  • Long intestines

  • Filter feeders (algae, bacteria, plankton) when young

  • Need protein and balanced nutrition for rapid growth

  • Maybe more cost effective to settle for moderate growth

Feeding strategy
Feeding strategy Well Water

  • Juvenile fish are especially good at filter feeding phytoplankton.

  • Many hatcheries utilize greenwater culture

  • Juveniles also filter feed on small zooplankters (especially crustaceans)

  • Save money on juvenile feeds by partial nutrition from natural feed in juvenile ponds and tanks

Nutrition decisions
Nutrition decisions Well Water

  • Natural herbivores and detritivores.

  • Opportunistic feeders grazing on algae and bacteria in production system.

  • Fry and fingerlings need high protein (50-40%) diet

  • Growout needs lower protein (32-28%) diet

  • “Organic” diets may be needed for “organic” buyers

  • Compare FCR to decide most efficient diet

Minimize fish meal in diet
Minimize fish meal in diet Well Water

  • Use more soybean meal

  • Utilize other grains treated with phytase

  • Increase use of other by-product meals (meat and bone, blood, feather, poultry by-product, brewers waste, etc.)

  • Examine other locally available ingredients (rice bran, cotton cake, canola, sunflower seed meal, etc)

Carp and tilapia biology
Carp and Tilapia Biology Well Water

  • Long convoluted intestine.

  • Digests complex organic matter

  • Fry are filter feeders

  • Adults are grazers

Proteins Well Water

  • Need balanced set of amino acids. Basic building blocks of proteins (and muscles)

  • Ten essential amino acids (required) several more are supplemental

Lipids Well Water

  • Lipids are basically fats.

  • Fish need a variety of long chain hydrocarbon fatty acids for proper growth

  • Will also bio-accumulate lipids from consumed algae

Carbohydrates Well Water

  • Needed for metabolic energy

  • Carbohydrates are polymers of sugar.

  • Common ingredients are corn, sorghum, rice

  • Molasses is mostly sugar and water. Does not supply as much energy as equal mass of lipid (fat)

Fiber Well Water

  • Less digestible material to help move material though the intestines.

  • Helps with micronutrients

Vitamins and minerals
Vitamins and minerals Well Water

  • Commonly supplied in “premix”

  • Often available in natural production of ponds.

  • Not critical for most semi-intensive fish farm operations.

  • Very critical in cage systems

Ingredients and formulations
Ingredients and formulations Well Water

  • Normally need high protein diets for young

  • 40-50%

  • Protein requirements drop as fish reach reproductive age. Lipid demand might increase with egg formation. 30-32%

  • Growout diets only need 25% protein

Pellet mill
Pellet mill Well Water

Compression pellet mill
Compression pellet mill Well Water

  • Feed mixed with water to dough consistency

  • Moistened feed put into hopper, pushed down to auger screw

  • Auger forces feed through the die head.

  • Holes in die determine pellet width

  • Knife blade cuts pellets to desired length

Extruders Well Water

  • Floating feeds

  • Feed mixes with steam in barrel of extruder

  • Cooks ingredients, improves palatability

  • Gelatinizes starches

  • Steam expansion and auger forces feed out of barrel with rapid expansion.

  • Traps air in pellet, allows to float

Storage Well Water

  • Always keep feed as dry and cool as possible

  • Avoids spoilage and rancidity of fats in diet

  • Bags should be on pallets, off floor to allow air to circulate and slow pests (mice, rats, roaches, ants, from getting to bags

  • Large amount can be stored in bulk in silos.

Handling Well Water

  • Reduce rough handling

  • Crushed pellets form fines which are not consumed by fish.

  • Fed by hand, blower, belts

Conclusions Well Water

  • Tilapia are omnivores

  • But eating anything will not make you grow fast and strong

  • Tilapia need balanced nutrition for rapid growth just like human children

Buy tilapia
Buy TILAPIA Well Water

Thank you!

Questions and discussion?