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An Introduction To The Health Effects of Caffeine. A Small Dose of ™ Caffeine. What Is This?. O. CH 3. CH 3. N. N. 7. 1. 3. N. O. N. CH 3. Caffeine – 1,3,7 Trimethylxanthine. O. CH 3. CH 3. N. N. 7. 1. 3. N. O. N. CH 3. History of Coffee. Date Event

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Presentation Transcript
what is this
What Is This?

O

CH3

CH3

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N

7

1

3

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O

N

CH3

history of coffee
History of Coffee

Date Event

~850 - Coffee beans discovered - The fable says that an Ethiopian goat or sheepherder noticed that the goats were more alter after eating the wild berries. He then sampled this new delicacy.

~1100 - First coffee trees and roasting of coffee beans.

1475 - Constantinople – the world’s first coffee house.

1600s - Coffee enters Europe and moves quickly to the Americas

1700s - Coffee house open throughout Europe.

1723 - First coffee plants are introduced into the Americas.

1822 - First espresso machine is created in France.

1938 - First instant coffee invented by the Nestlé company.

1971 - Starbucks opens its first location in Seattle, Washington's Pike Place Market.

caffeine money
The coffee and cola industries owe their wealth to the physiological properties of the drug caffeine.

S.G. Gilbert (2001)

Caffeine & Money
history of tea
History of Tea

Date Event

3000 B.C. - Tea discovered in China or introduced form India

350 B.C. - First written description of Tea drinking in China.

450 A.D. - Turkish traders bargain for Tea and the Silk road is born.

800 - Tea introduced to Japan.

1450 - Japanese Tea ceremony created and popularized

1610 - Dutch bring Tea to Europe

1773 - Boston Tea party, rebellion against England’s tea tax

1776 - England sends first Opium to China to help pay for tea.

1835 - First experimental tea plantations in Assam, India.

1908 - Tea bags invented in New York.

history of chocolate
History of Chocolate

Date Event

400 B.C. - Olmec people of Mexico made chocolate drinks

250 A.D. - Mayans of Mexico were cultivating cocoa crops

1528 - Cocoa was brought to Spain by Hernando Cortés

1600s - Chocolate drinks introduced into Europe

1657 - First English chocolate houses open

1828 - Screw press that extracted the cocoa butter from the beans invented in Holland

1840s - Chocolate as solid developed

quote lovers of coffee
Coffee

Black as hell, strong as death, sweet as love.

Turkish proverb.

Quote – Lovers of Coffee
quote fear of coffee
"Often coffee drinkers, finding the drug to be unpleasant, turn to other narcotics, of which opium and alcohol are most common.“

Morphinism and Narcomanias from Other Drugs (1902) by T. D. Crothers, M.D.

Quote – Fear of Coffee
quote love of tea
“Tea, though ridiculed by those who are naturally coarse in their nervous sensibilities … will always be the favorite beverage of the intellectual.”

Thomas De Quincey (1785–1859), English author. Confessions of an English Opium-Eater,“The Pleasures of Opium” (1822).

Quote – Love of Tea
historical events
Historical Events

Tea trade and opium

Opium War of 1839-42

Great Britain has a monopoly on the sale of opium which it forces on China; eventually gaining control of Hong Kong.

Consider our societies ongoing “war on drugs”.

caffeine and society
Most widely consumed stimulant drug in the world

Many people start consuming caffeine at an early age

A great deal of money is made from caffeine – why?

Caffeine and Society
caffeine content
1 Cup of coffee – 65-175 mg

1 Cup of tea – 50 mg

Can of soda (12 oz) – 40-50 mg

Bar of chocolate (30 g) – 1-35 mg

Caffeine Content
aspects of caffeine
Desirable effects

Stimulant, increased alertness, concentrate, energy, bronchial dilator

Toxicity

Restlessness, jitters, anxiety, insomnia, elevated or irregular heart rate

No tolerance

Most develop little or no tolerance to the nervous system effects

Withdrawal effects

Transient but persistent, headache, low energy, in ability to concentrate

Aspects of Caffeine
absorption
Absorption

Rapidly absorbed following oral consumption

Peak blood (plasma) levels usually with 30 minutes

distribution
Distribution

Distributes into all body compartments –

Pass easily into brain, breast milk and crosses placenta

Does not accumulate

metabolism elimination
Metabolism/Elimination
  • Metabolized in the liver
  • Changed to di- and mon- methylxanthines
  • Excreted in the urine
half life
Half-life

How long it takes to leave the body

Average adult – 3-5 hrs

Child less that 6 months – 24 hrs

Pregnant – 7-8 hrs

Smoker – 2-3 hrs

Varies between individuals

mechanism of action
Mechanism Of Action

Blocks Adenosine receptor

Adenosine is a calming neurotransmitter

parents of caffeine
Parents Of Caffeine

PURINE

XANTHINE

Dioxypurine - Parent methylxanthines

Parent of compounds found in RNA & DNA

normal action of adenosine
Normal Action of Adenosine

Adenosine Receptor

1

Adenosine

Outside Cell

Cell Membrane

2

Inside Cell

Adenosine binds to receptor

3

Signal Protein

Positive Response

Calming effect

action of caffeine
Action of Caffeine

Caffeine

1

Adenosine Receptor

2

Caffeine

inactivates

receptor

3

Adenosine

can not bind

Caffeine

No Response

Resulting in Stimulation

why so many s from caffeine
Why so many $$s from caffeine?
  • Pleasant stimulant effects
  • Short Half-life (you need to back for more)
  • Can’t drink too much at any one time (toxicity)
  • Headache when you stop drinking it
additional information
Additional Information
  • Web Sites
          • England – Department of Health – Statement on the reproductive effects of caffeine. Online. <http://www.doh.gov.uk/sacn/pdf/200106caffeine.pdf> (accessed: 2 April 2003).
          • U.S. Food and Drug Administration (FDA) - Perplexities Of Pregnancy. Online. <http://www.cfsan.fda.gov/~dms/wh-preg2.html> (accessed: 9 April 2003).
          • Caffeine – The Vaults of Erowid. Online. <http://www.erowid.org/chemicals/caffeine/caffeine.shtml> (accessed: 2 April 2003).
authorship information
Authorship Information

This presentation is supplement to

“A Small Dose of Toxicology”

For Additional Information Contact

Steven G. Gilbert, PhD, DABT

E-mail: smdose@asmalldoseof.org

Web: www.asmalldoseof.org

xanthine
Xanthine

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H

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1

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purine
Purine

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N

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7

1

3

N

N