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Characteristics of Chinese Drivers Attending a Mandatory Training Course Following Licence Suspension Dr Judy Fleiter Postdoctoral Research Fellow Co-authors: WATSON, Barry; GUAN, Manquan ; DING, Jingyan , XU Cheng . Collaboration.

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slide1

Characteristics of Chinese Drivers Attending a Mandatory Training Course Following Licence Suspension

Dr Judy Fleiter

Postdoctoral Research Fellow

Co-authors: WATSON, Barry; GUAN, Manquan; DING, Jingyan, XU Cheng

collaboration
Collaboration
  • Postdoctoral Research Fellowship from Australia’s National Health & Medical Research Council to promote Australia-China road safety research
    • Zhejiang Police College, Hangzhou, China (2 years)
    • CARRS-Q, Queensland University of Technology, Brisbane, Australia (2 years)
overview
Overview
  • Background – Demerit point system and driver retraining in Zhejiang Province
  • Method
  • Findings
  • Conclusion and Recommendations
background
Background
  • Traffic law enforcement relies on penalties and sanctions:
    • Vehicle (eg Impoundment)
    • Person (eg. Remedial programs, Detention)
    • Licence (eg. Suspension, Disqualification)
      • Commonly administered by Demerit points system
demerit point systems
Demerit point systems
  • Vary between countries
  • Offences have predetermined # points assigned
  • Often, more severe offences associated with greater number of points
  • Licence holders accrue (or lose) points
  • Threshold (predetermined limit) is reached within certain timeframe
  • Licence suspended or disqualified for set time

van Schagen & Machata, 2012

variations 1
Variations (1)
  • Threshold commonly 12-18 points (Bulgaria = 39)
  • New Zealand - 12 points over 2 years
  • Australia - 12 points over 3 years
  • China - 12 points over 1 year
  • Parts of EU, 1 pt/offence; 3 offences = suspension
  • Other places, 6 or 8 points per offence
  • Different thresholds for different drivers

Styles et al, 2009; van Schagen & Machata, 2012

variations 2
Variations (2)
  • Novice drivers
    • Queensland: part of Graduated Driver Licensing system, Learner and Provisional Licence holders have 4 points/year
  • Professional drivers
    • Italy: Offences committed when driving professionally tallied in separate driving record
  • Repeat offenders
    • Prolonged periods of suspension for recidivists in some places
  • Double demerits at particular times (eg holidays)
china
China
  • Rapid recent motorisation
  • Significant road trauma burden
  • Large increase in
    • newly licensed drivers
    • private car ownership
  • Major challenge to manage record numbers of 1st time car owners and novice drivers
retraining after licence suspension 1
Retraining after Licence Suspension (1)
  • 12 points in 1 year = licence suspension for 1 month
  • Mandatory 1 wk retraining
    • own expense
    • Must pass examination to regain licence
  • Course administered & run by Traffic Police Department, Public Security Bureau
  • Low cost (RMB 51 in Zhejiang Province)
    • Average annual income = RMB35,731 Urban; RMB13,071 Rural
retraining after licence suspension 2
Retraining after Licence Suspension (2)
  • Offences leading to licence loss include:
    • Speeding
    • Unlicensed driving
    • Vehicle overloading
    • Red light running
    • Alcohol-impaired driving
    • Driving wrong way on a one way street
retraining after licence suspension 3
Retraining after Licence Suspension (3)
  • If Course done twice in 1 year, suspension period doubles (2 months)
  • If suspended 3rd time, must redo novice driver training (more extensive, takes approx 2 months)
  • Recent revision to regulation:
    • Accrue 10 demerit points in 1 year, can apply to undertake 2 day course to regain 4 points
    • Can only do this once
slide13

Little is known about effectiveness of demerit point schemes and driver education in China……

research aim
Research Aim

Pilot study to examine basic information about participants of a driver retraining course to gain baseline data

zhejiang province1
Zhejiang Province
  • South east coast of China
  • Hangzhou is capital city
  • Population 54+ million (end 2011)
  • Registered vehicles 6.5+ million (end 2011)
  • Valid licences: 12.1+ million
    • 22.36% of population, end 2011
  • In 2011, 1.38 million new licences issued
    • 17% increase on previous year.

Zhejiang Traffic Management Department, 2012; Zhejiang Public Security Bureau, 2012

method
Method
  • 2 visits by research team to Driver Retraining Centre in Hangzhou
  • Anonymous questionnaire completed ‘in class’ in presence of research team
  • Responses not available to training staff
  • 94% response rate
  • 239 participants
sample characteristics
Sample Characteristics
  • 87% male
    • Higher than Provincial level of licence holders
    • Approx 2/3 male
  • Private vehicle ownership = 83.3%
  • Mean age 35 years (SD=8.7, Range 21-60)
annual income
Annual Income
  • Zhejiang Average annual income = RMB35,731 Urban; RMB13,071 Rural
hours driven week
Hours Driven/Week

Mean = 18.06 hours/week, SD=14.4, Range 1 – 86 hours

infringements in last year
# Infringements in Last Year
  • Mean = 4.6 infringements (SD=3.2, Range 2-18)
  • 33% reported 5+ infringements
  • 4.3% reported 10 + infringements
  • Most commonly reported violations...
avoiding legal penalty
Avoiding Legal Penalty?
  • Received Infringements but didn’t pay them in the last year?
    • 24% Yes
  • Number of infringements not paid
certainty of receiving penalty if
Certainty of Receiving Penalty if…
  • Caught by speed camera
    • 76% sure they would receive penalty
  • Caught by traffic police officer
    • 82.6% sure they would receive penalty
  • Then asked if previously used specific strategies to avoid detection or penalty
strategies to avoid penalty
Strategies to Avoid Penalty

Percentage reporting ‘Sometimes to Always’

crash involvement 1
Crash Involvement (1)
  • Previous year
  • M = 0.53 crashes (SD=0.9; Range 0-5)
  • 14.5% reported >1 crash
  • No information on ‘at fault’ crashes
  • Length held licence examined to see if difference in crashes
crash involvement 2
Crash Involvement (2)
  • Four groups created according to length of time licensed
    • Novice drivers (<2 years licensed)
    • 2-5 years licensed
    • 6-10 years licensed
    • 11+ years licensed
  • Significant difference found between Novice & 11+
  • Novice drivers reported more crashes
  • No other differences found
conclusions 1
Conclusions (1)
  • Driver retraining courses vary across international jurisdictions
  • Some show +ve results when evaluated
  • No evaluation data available for China
  • Little known about effectiveness of driver education processes in China

Delhomme, Grenier, & Kreel, 2008; Senserrick, Yu, Wei, Stevenson, & Ivers, 2011

conclusions 2
Conclusions (2)
  • Research conducted approx. 1 year after serious penalties increased for Drunk driving DWI in China (May 2011)
  • Encouraging that only 2.2% reported DWI (0.08+ BAC) in previous year
  • Lesser offence (DUI – 0.02-0.08 BAC) reported by two thirds of sample
  • Suggests that ongoing effort needed to educate about risks of DUI
  • Half sample reported speeding offences. Work still needed to promote speed limit compliance
conclusions 3
Conclusions (3)
  • Integrity of penalty system is critical to effective traffic law enforcement
  • Effective deterrence relies on high perceived risk of apprehension and certainty of receiving penalty
  • 1/3 reported avoiding penalty in previous year
  • Various strategies reported
  • Encouragingly, majority reported not engaging in avoidance behaviours
  • Important to strengthen integrity of system to reduce opportunities for punishment avoidance
conclusions 4
Conclusions (4)
  • Limitations acknowledged:
  • Self-report data – no link to official violations database
  • No conclusions on effectiveness of demerit point scheme or retraining course – data not available
  • Use of retraining course shows willingness to improve road safety situation in China
  • Future research could build on this work to establish baseline data for comparison to assess effectiveness of retraining courses.
slide33

20th International Council on Alcohol, Drugs & Traffic Safety Conference

Registration now open!

www.t2013.com

slide34

Thank you.

Any comments/questions?

j.fleiter@qut.edu.au

Mark your Diaries!

International Council on Alcohol, Drugs and Traffic Safety Conference (2013)

25-28 August 2013, Brisbane

Registrations now open!

http://t2013.com

CRICOS No. 00213J