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Blending PowerPoint Presentation

Blending

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Blending

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  1. Blending

  2. Blending • Examples: • flush (flash + blush) • beefburger (beef + hamburger) • Eurasia (Europe + Asia) • Blending is the formation of new words by combining parts of two words or a word plus a part of another word or vice versa.

  3. Blending • Names of such words: • blends • pormanteau words

  4. Blending • Patterns of blending • 1. head + tail • autocide (automobile + suicide)撞车自杀 • motel (motor + hotel) 汽车旅馆 • cremains (cremate + remains) 骨灰

  5. Blending • 2. head + head • comsat (communications + satellite) • 通讯卫星 • Amerind (American + Indian) 美印地安人 • sitcom (situation + comedy) 情景喜剧 • fansub (fanatic + subtitle) 影迷字幕

  6. Blending • 3. head + word • medicare (medical + care)医疗照顾制度 • telequiz (telephone + quiz)电话测试 • autocamp (automobile + camp) 汽车野营

  7. Blending • 4. word + tail • netizen (net +citizen) 网民 • lunarnaut (lunar + astronaut)登月宇航员 • bookmobile (book + automobile) 流动书店 • workfare (work + welfare) 劳动福利

  8. Blending • autocide (automobile + suicide)撞车自杀 • sitcom (situation + comedy) 情景喜剧 • autocamp (automobile + camp) 汽车野营 • workfare (work + welfare) 劳动福利 • All the examples are nouns.

  9. Blending • A few verbs: • guestimate (guess + estimate)估猜 • breathalyse (breath + analyse)           对呼吸测酒分析 • Words of such are less than formal.

  10. Clipping

  11. Clipping • Definition • plane (aeroplane) • exam (examination) • taxi (taximeter cabriolet) • Clipping is to shorten a word by cutting a part off the original and using what remains instead.

  12. Clipping • Types of clipping: • 1. Front clipping • quake (earthquake) • scope (telescope) • 2. Back clipping • memo (memorandum) • disco (discotheque)

  13. Clipping • 3. Front and back clipping • flu (influenza) • fridge (refrigerater) • 4. Phrase clipping • pub (public house) • zoo (zoological garden)

  14. Clipping • Changes: • fridge (refrigerator) • bike (bicycle) • coke (cocoa cola) • telly (television) • pram (perambulator)

  15. Clipping • The changes are made to conform to the English ways of spelling and pronunciation. • Such words are informal, generally used in conversations.

  16. Acronymy

  17. Acronymy • Definition: • Acronymy is the process of forming new words by joining initial letters from names of social and political organizations or technical terms. • Words made as such areinitialisms (alphabetism)or acronyms.

  18. Acronymy • Initialisms • Initialisms pronounced letter by letter • A.D. (Anno Domini) • B.C. (Before Christ) • VOA (Voice of America) • WTO (World Trade Organization)

  19. Acronymy • Exceptions: • TV (television) • TB (tuberculosis) • ID (identification card/ identity card)

  20. Acronymy • Acronyms • Acronyms pronounced as normal words • AIDS (acquired immune deficiency syndrome) • CORE (Congress of Racial Equality) • One letter from each of the words.

  21. Acronymy • WAVES (Women Appointed forVoluntary Emergency Service) • TOEFL (teaching of English asaforeign language) • laser (lightwave amplification bystimulated emission of radiation) • radar (radio detecting and ranging)

  22. Acronymy • Taking one or more letters from one word and leaving out others. • Hybrid words: • G-man (Government man) • D-Day (Decimalization Day) • V-Day (Victory Day) • Acronymy is very productive.

  23. Sound Reduplication

  24. Sound Reduplication • Examples: • goody-goody 好好先生 • willy-nilly 乱七八糟/不管怎样 • shilly-shally 优柔寡断 • Sound reduplication is a repetition of a word form with a little or no change.

  25. Sound Reduplication • Four types of reduplication: • 1. Words imitating natural sounds (equal to onomatopeic words) • tick-tuck滴答滴答 • ha ha ha哈哈哈 • bow-wow汪汪汪 • cock-a-doodle-doo喔喔喔

  26. Sound Reduplication • 2. words suggesting alternating movements • ping-pang 乒乓 • seesaw跷跷板/上下起伏 • flip-flop 啪嗒啪嗒

  27. Sound Reduplication • 3. Words suggesting ‘instability, non-sense, insincerity, vacillation’, etc. • fingle-fangle标新立异 • miz-maze迷津/头脑混乱 • higgledy-piggledy杂乱无章 • dilly-dally三心二意/浪费时间

  28. Sound Reduplication • 4. Words for intensifying • teeny-weeny小小的 • tip-top顶尖的/出色的 • super-duper了不起/出色

  29. Sound Reduplication • 汉语重叠 • 1. AABB • 热热闹闹 哭哭啼啼 吃吃喝喝 • 2. ABB/BBA • 红希希 黑乎乎 梆梆硬 滚滚圆 • 3. ABAB • 哗啦哗啦 讨论讨论

  30. Sound Reduplication • 4. A里AB • 俗里俗气 傻里傻气 莽里莽撞 • 5. AA • 个个 张张 迢迢 堂堂 声声 项项 • 想想 看看 走走 读读 问问 写写

  31. Backformation

  32. Backformation • Examples: • editor edit • butler butle • laser lase • diagnosis diagnose • Backformation is to make new words by removing the so-called suffixes.

  33. Backformation • Source words for backformation: • 1. Abstract nouns • enthusiasm enthuse • donation donate • emotion emote

  34. Backformation • 2. Human nouns • sculptor sculpt • author auth • loafer loaf

  35. Backformation • 3. Adjectives • drowsy drowse • lazy laze

  36. Backformation • 4. Compound nouns and others • merrymaking merry-make • eavesdropping eavesdrop • mass-production mass-produce

  37. Backformation • Almost all the back-formed words are verbs. • They are all informal.

  38. Commonization of Proper Nouns

  39. Commonization • Definition • Commonizaton is formation of new words by changing proper names into common words. • banting = reducing weight by going on a diet 节食减肥疗法 • Banting = a doctor who developed this cure, hence his name

  40. Commonization • Types of proper names: • 1. Names of people • ampere French physicist Ampere • farad British physicist Faraday • ohm German physicist Ohm • volt Italian physicist Volta • watt Scottish inventor Watt

  41. Commonization • proteanProteus, a sea deity with the power to assume different forms • meaning: able to assume different forms or characters; versatile

  42. Commonization • quixotic DonQuixote in the novel Don Quixote de la Mancha by Cervantés • meaning: extravagantly romantic, idealistic, chivalrous

  43. Commonization • bobby Sir Robert Peel, founder of London police in early 19th century • meaning: policeman (BrE)

  44. Commonization • 2. Names of places • china from China • meaning: porcelain • champagne from Champagnein France • meaning: wine (of that name) • rugby from a British Rugby School • meaning: ball game of rugby

  45. Commonization • 3. Names of books • utopia from Sir Thomas More's book Utopia • meaning: an imaginary perfect society • odyssey from Homer's epic The Odyssey • meaning: a long journey full of hardships

  46. Commonization • 4. Tradenames • nylon 尼龙 (音译) • orlon 奥纶 (音译) • dacron 的确良 (音译) • rayon人造丝 (义译) • frisbee飞碟 (义译)

  47. Commonization • Form and part of speech: • boycott (n & v) 19th century Landlord Captain Boycott • meaning: refusal or refuse to do business with

  48. Commonization • cabal (n & v) Clifford, Ashley, Buckingham, Arlington, lauderdale (British Ministers) • meaning: clique or make secret plans for political action

  49. Commonization • Adding suffixes • adjective suffix: -ic, -an, -al, -ist, -ese, -ish, -esque • Examples: colossal, irenic, stentorian, Micawberish, picaresque • Noun suffix: -ism, -(i)ne, -age, -ade, -ia, -ity, -ry • Examples:solecism, morphine, sabotage, pasquinade, magnolia

  50. END