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Words to Study for Chem. Test. Solid Liquid Gas/Gas Laws Change of State Melting/Melting Point Boiling/Boiling Point Freezing/Freezing Point Evaporation Condensation Sublimation Endo/Exothermic. Mass Weight Matter Physical Properties Chemical Properties Characteristic Properties

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Words to study for chem test
Words to Study for Chem. Test

  • Solid

  • Liquid

  • Gas/Gas Laws

  • Change of State

  • Melting/Melting Point

  • Boiling/Boiling Point

  • Freezing/Freezing Point

  • Evaporation

  • Condensation

  • Sublimation

  • Endo/Exothermic

  • Mass

  • Weight

  • Matter

  • Physical Properties

  • Chemical Properties

  • Characteristic Properties

  • Physical Changes

  • Chemical Changes

  • Signs of Chem. Change

  • States of Matter

  • Atoms


Words to study for chem test1
Words to Study for Chem. Test

  • Chemical Formulas

  • Chemical Equations

  • Reactants

  • Products

  • Subscripts

  • Coefficients

  • Law of Conservation of Mass

  • Decomposition Reaction

  • Replacement Reaction

  • Synthesis Reaction

  • Solution

  • Solubility

  • Suspensions

  • Colloids

  • Pure Substance

  • Element

  • Compound

  • Mixture

  • Homogeneous Mixture

  • Heterogeneous Mixture


Chemical formulas
Chemical Formulas

  • A combination of chemical symbols and numbers to represent a substance

  • Examples

    • H20: Water

    • CO2: Carbon Dioxide

    • NaCl: Salt

    • C6H1206: Sugar


Chemical equations
Chemical Equations

  • A representation of a chemical reaction that uses symbols to show the relationship between the reactants and the products

  • Examples

    C + O2  CO2

    2H2 + O2  2H2O


Reactants
Reactants

  • A substance or molecule that participates in a chemical reaction

  • Examples

    C + O2  CO2

    Reactants

    2H2 + O2  2H2O

    Reactants


Products
Products

  • A substance that forms in a chemical reaction

  • Examples

    C + O2  CO2

    Product

    Zn + 2HCl  ZnCl2 + H2

    Product


Subscripts
Subscripts

  • A number written below and to the right of a chemical symbol in a formula

  • Tells how many atoms of that element are present

  • Examples

    • CO2

    • H20

    • C6H12O6


Coefficients
Coefficients

  • A number that is placed in front of a chemical symbol or formula

  • Tells how many molecules of that substance are present

  • Keeps reaction balanced

  • Example

    2H2 + O2  2H2O


Law of conservation of mass
Law of Conservation of Mass

  • Mass is neither created nor destroyed in ordinary chemical and physical changes

  • Must start and end with the same amount

  • Example

    Log + Fire  Ashes + Smoke

    30 kg 1 kg 28 kg 3 kg


Decomposition reaction
Decomposition Reaction

  • A reaction in which a single compound breaks down to form two or more simpler substances

  • Example

    H2CO3  H2O + CO2


Replacement reaction
Replacement Reaction

  • A reaction in which one element takes the place of another element in a compound

  • Example

    Zn + 2HCl  ZnCl2 + H2


Synthesis reaction
Synthesis Reaction

  • A reaction in which two or more substances combine to form a new compound

  • Example

    2Na + Cl2 2NaCl


Solution
Solution

  • A homogeneous mixture of 2 or more substances evenly dispersed throughout a single phase

  • Looks like one thing

  • Usually when 1 substance is dissolved in another, but not always

    • Examples: Lemonade, Air, Bronze, Gatorade


Solubility
Solubility

  • Ability of 1 substance to dissolve in another

  • To dissolve more quickly: Crush it, Stir it, Heat it

  • Solute – the substance that is dissolved

  • Solvent – what substance is being dissolved in

    • Example: Sugar dissolves in water


Suspensions
Suspensions

  • A mixture in which particles of a material are more or less evenly dispersed throughout a liquid or gas

  • When you shake it, it looks like one thing, but if you leave it setting, particles will settle to bottom

    • Example: Snow Globe


Colloids
Colloids

  • Mixture consisting of tiny particles that are intermediate in size between those in solutions and those in suspensions

  • Particles aren’t so small that they completely dissolve like solutions, but aren’t so big they settle

    • These particles can scatter light

    • Example: Milk, Mayo, Deodorant


Homogeneous mixture
Homogeneous Mixture

  • Looks like or appears to be only 1 substance

  • Example

    • Gatorade

    • Lemonade


Heterogeneous mixture
Heterogeneous Mixture

  • Looks like or appears to be more than 1 substance


Pure substance
Pure Substance

  • Sample of matter, either a single element or a single compound, that has a definite chemical & physical properties

  • Made of only 1 type of particle

    • Elements or Compounds

  • Elements – made of atoms

  • Compounds – made of molecules


Element
Element

  • A substance that can’t be separated or broken down into simpler substances by chemical means

  • Pure substance

  • Can’t be broken down at all

  • Made of one type of atom

  • Found listed on Periodic Table


Compound
Compound

  • Substance made up of atoms of 2 or more different elements chemically combined with specific mass ratio

  • Can only be separated by chemical changes

  • Made only of molecules

    • H20: Water

    • NaCl: Salt

    • C6H12O6: Sugar

    • Fe2O3: Rust

  • Properties of compound are completely different from the properties of elements that formed it


Mixture
Mixture

  • Combination of 2 or more substances that are not chemically combined

  • 2 or more things physically in the same place

    • Examples: Salad, Cereal, Pizza, Omelette


Change of state
Change of State

  • Change of a substance from one physical form to another

  • Requires adding or removing energy so that particles can speed up or slow down


Endothermic
Endothermic

  • Energy is absorbed by a substance or substances


Exothermic
Exothermic

  • Energy is released from a substance or substances


Melting
Melting

  • Change of state when a solid becomes a liquid

  • Particles must speed up

  • Add energy/heat

  • Endothermic


Melting point
Melting Point

  • Temperature at which a substance melts

  • Water: 32°F or 0°C


Freezing
Freezing

  • Change of state from a liquid to a solid

  • Particles must slow down

  • Remove energy/heat

  • Exothermic


Freezing point
Freezing Point

  • Temperature at which a substance freezes

  • Water: 32°F or 0°C


Evaporation
Evaporation

  • Change of a substance from a liquid to a gas (only on surface)

  • Particles (on surface) must speed up

  • Add energy/heat

  • Endothermic


Boiling
Boiling

  • Change of a liquid to a gas (throughout an entire liquid)

  • Particles (on bottom of liquid) must speed up

  • Add energy/heat

  • Endothermic

    **Won’t happen unless air pressure equals pressure in bubbles


Boiling point
Boiling Point

  • Temperature at which a substance boils

  • Water: 212°F or 100°C

  • At Sea Level: boiling depends on air pressure


Condensation
Condensation

  • Change of state from a gas to a liquid

  • Particles must slow down

  • Remove energy/heat

  • Exothermic


Sublimation
Sublimation

  • Change of state from a solid to a gas

    • Example: Dry Ice

  • Skips liquid stage

  • Add energy/heat

  • Endothermic


To access the bbc video
To Access the BBC Video:

  • In Internet Explorer, go to www.tinyurl.com/christscience7

  • Click on Unit 2

  • Under Class Files/Links, click on Behavior of Matter Test Bite (BBC)

  • When finished, turn in questions to your period’s colored drawer 


Atoms
Atoms

  • Smallest unit of an element that maintains the properties of that element

  • Can not be broken down into anything smaller

  • Scientists used to think they couldn’t be split, but we now know that was incorrect


States of matter
States of Matter

  • The physical forms of matter, which include solid, liquid, and gas


Solid
Solid

  • The state of matter in which the volume and shape of a substance are fixed

  • Definite shape

  • Definite volume

  • Particles are tightly packed

  • Particles barely move

    • They vibrate in place


Liquid
Liquid

  • The state of matter that has a definite volume but not a definite shape

  • No definite shape

  • Definite volume

  • Particles move fast enough to separate a little

    • Allowing them to change shape

  • Particles do not move fast enough to change volume


Liquid continued
Liquid (Continued)

  • Viscosity: a liquid’s resistance to flow

    • High Viscosity: Slow Flow (Honey)

    • Low Viscosity: Fast Flow (Water)

  • Surface Tension: force that attracts the molecules at the surface of a liquid to form the drop


Words to study for chem test
Gas

  • The state of matter that does not have a definite shape or volume

  • No definite shape

  • No definite volume

  • Particles move so fast that they completely separate from each other

    • Allowing them to change shape and volume


Gas laws
Gas Laws

  • If Temperature remains Constant, Hallway

    • Volume Increases, Pressure Decreases

    • Volume Decreases, Pressure Increases

    • Inversely Proportional

  • If Pressure remains Constant,  Balloon

    • Temperature Increases, Volume Increases

    • Temperature Decreases, Volume Decreases

    • Directly Proportional


Physical changes
Physical Changes

  • A change of matter from one form to another without a change in chemical properties

  • Usually reversible, no change to matter composition

  • End with the same thing you started with

  • Examples:

    • Ripping

    • Crushing

    • Cutting

    • Heating

    • Cooling

    • Coloring

    • All changes of state


Chemical changes
Chemical Changes

  • A change that occurs when one or more substances change into entirely new substances with different properties

  • Never reversible

  • End with something different than you started with

  • Examples:

    • Soured Milk

    • Burning

    • Digesting

    • Cooking/Baking

    • Rotting/Spoiling

    • Tarnishing


Signs of a chemical change
Signs of a Chemical Change

  • Change in color

  • Change in temperature

  • Fizzing/Foaming

  • Sound or light being given off

  • New smell

  • New taste

  • Precipitate – when two liquids are mixed together and form a solid


Words to study for chem test
Mass

  • A measure of the amount of matter in an object

  • Mass of an object is the same no matter where it is located

  • Only way to change is to add or take away matter

  • Unit/Tool:

    • Grams (g)

    • Balance


Weight
Weight

  • A measure of the gravitational force exerted on an object

  • Changes when the force of gravity changes

    • Differs on Earth & Mars

  • Unit/Tool:

    • Newtons (N)

    • Spring Scale


Matter
Matter

  • Anything that has mass and takes up space

  • Made up of tiny particles called atoms

    • Atoms: smallest particle of matter


Physical properties
Physical Properties

  • Can be observed or measured without changing the matter’s identity

  • Adjective – descriptive word

  • Examples

    • Color

    • Smell

    • Size/Shape

    • Texture/Taste

    • Temperature

    • Density

    • State (Solid, Liquid, Gas)


Chemical properties
Chemical Properties

  • Substance ability to participate in chemical reactions

  • Hard to observe

  • In order to see these you must change the substance into a new substance

  • Examples

    • Flammability

    • Reactivity


Characteristic properties
Characteristic Properties

  • Chemical or physical property that is always the same no matter what size the sample is

  • Can be physical or chemical

  • Most useful type of property

  • Examples

    • Density

    • Flammability

    • Reactivity

    • Boiling Point, Melting Point, Freezing Point

    • Color

    • Smell