Liberalism and vietnam in the 1960s
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Liberalism and Vietnam in the 1960s. John F. Kennedy and the New Frontier. Election of 1960 was close JFK more concerned with foreign policy Peace Corps Aid to education Health care for the elderly Investment in transportation Congressional opposition got in the way. The Election of 1964.

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John f kennedy and the new frontier
John F. Kennedy and the New Frontier

  • Election of 1960 was close

  • JFK more concerned with foreign policy

  • Peace Corps

  • Aid to education

  • Health care for the elderly

  • Investment in transportation

  • Congressional opposition got in the way

The election of 1964
The Election of 1964

  • Lyndon Johnson v. Barry Goldwater


  • Johnson won in a landslide—mandate

  • Cracks in the “solid south”

Lyndon b johnson and the great society
Lyndon B. Johnson and the Great Society

  • Complete what JFK couldn’t

    • Medicare/Medicaid

    • Civil Rights Act

  • The Great Society—” war on poverty”

    • VISTA

    • Head Start

    • Job Corps

    • Upward bound

    • Housing and Urban Development

    • NEA/NEH

  • President of all the people

The second third wave of the women s movement
The Second (Third?) Wave of the Women’s Movement

  • Feminists’ dreams kept alive by working women

    • Child care

    • Equal pay for equal work

  • Betty Freidan’s The Feminine Mystique

  • Women learn lessons from Civil Rights Movement

  • Second Wave of Feminism—two main camps of feminist action—all rejected return to “feminine mystique”

    • Revival of feminism

    • Radical feminism

1960 kennedy s vietnam policy
1960—Kennedy’s Vietnam Policy

  • Sends in green berets in 1961 to advise

    • Between ‘55 and ‘61 650 advisors

    • Kennedy increases to 15,500 between ‘61 and ‘63

    • 1963--US instigated a coup in South Vietnam

      • Diem and friends killed

      • Generals become leaders

1963 1965

  • Johnson listens to military advisors telling him to resist communism

  • 1964--Tonkin Gulf Resolution

    • Allows president to take all necessary measures to prevent further aggression

    • response to an unprovoked attack by the North on American destroyers


  • 500,000 troops sent to Vietnam

  • Johnson continues bombing

  • War becomes unpopular

  • TV helps Americans form opinions of the war

  • The “credibility gap” develops

1968 a watershed year
1968: A Watershed Year

  • Tet Offensive

    • An attack on US strongholds in the South by VC

      • Turned into a victory for US

      • TV coverage stirred antiwar sentiment and tarnished Johnson

  • My Lai Massacre

    • Happened in 1967 but revealed in 1968


  • We can’t win the war—Peace with Honor

  • Vietnamization

    • training and equipping the South Vietnamese

    • withdrawing American troops

    • by ‘72 only 24,000 troops remained

  • Troops reduced in Vietnam but bombing continued

    • Nixon orders secret bombing of Cambodia

    • This action sparks protest

Paris accords
Paris Accords

  • End the Vietnam War

  • Cease fire and release of POWs

  • Provisions did not preclude a communist Vietnam

  • Fall of Saigon

  • Laos and Cambodia

The media the draft and vietnam
The Media, The Draft and Vietnam

  • First “television” war

  • Increased the “Credibility Gap”

  • Be drafted or go to jail

  • Deferments

    • College

    • Service profession

    • Peace Corps or VISTA

  • Avoiding the draft

The new left
The New Left

  • New Left: young radical political activists

    • Often associated with the Civil Rights movement

  • Free Speech Movement (1964)

    • Pursued the rights of students to engage in political activity

      • UC Berkeley and SF State

  • Teach-ins: University of Michigan

    • Used to discuss the moral political aspects of the Vietnam War

The new left1
The New Left

  • Anti-War Movement gains control of the New Left

    • Stimulated by the end of automatic deferments in 1966

    • Draft card burnings

    • Draft evasion

  • Kent State University

    • May 4, 1970

    • Four students die

Counter culture

  • Disliked society

    • Choose alternative lifestyle

      • Marked by drug use, liberated sex and long hair

  • Hippies: followed the behavior of the counter-culture

  • Major event: Woodstock—1969

  • Impact

    • Changed fashion

    • Films and TV dealt with social issues

    • Message through music

  • Lines between the 2 blurred

The tumultuous late 60s
The Tumultuous Late-60s

  • Politics

    • (“Credibility Gap”, Anti-War Movement & 1968 Election)

  • Diplomatic

    • (Vietnam Quagmire, Tet Offensive)

  • Social

    • (Race & Gender Relations become more militant & diverse)

  • Cultural

    • (“Counter Culture” grows as shown in music, art, drugs, etc.)

1968 a watershed year1
1968—A Watershed Year

  • The Democratic Convention

    • The “alternative” convention

  • Richard Nixon—Republican nominee

    • The Silent Majority

  • The Tet Offensive

  • My Lai Massacre (revealed in 1968)

  • Assassination of Martin Luther King Jr.

The shift to the right
The Shift to the Right

  • Disillusionment of the left

    • Government did not change society

      • Great Society--War on Poverty

      • Vietnam

      • Watergate

  • Growth of Christianity (similar to the Great Awakening)

    • More emphasis on social and cultural issues

Nixon as president
Nixon as President

  • Build a conservative coalition

  • Smaller government

  • Undermine the liberal elite

    • Cut Federal programs while silencing the liberals

      • NEA/NEH

      • Housing

Nixon s foreign policy
Nixon’s Foreign Policy

  • Détente

  • Vietnamization

  • Relations with China

  • SALT Talks


  • Election of 1972


  • Break-in

  • Cover-up

  • Reporters and the tapes

  • Saturday Night Massacre

  • Resignation

Turning inward
Turning Inward

  • Focus on improving themselves and their community--Me decade

    • Self-help becomes popular

      • Yoga

      • Exercise

      • Religion--both Christian and non-Christian

    • Self Awareness

      • Move from equality to multiculturalism

The right merges
The Right Merges

  • Oppose the breakdown of cultural norms

    • Turn to faith

  • Success of liberals galvanize the right

    • Roe vs. Wade

  • Big government is bad

    • Communism

    • Fascism


  • Religious Right gains power

    • Return to family values

      • Stop ERA

      • Anti Roe vs. Wade

      • Moral Majority

  • Various conservative groups are bound together

    • Small government with Religious right

The energy crisis
The Energy Crisis

  • US dependent on foreign oil

  • American support of Israel  Oil embargo 1973

  • The US struggled to meet demand

    • 55 mph speed limit

    • Fuel efficient cars

  • Purchase of American cars dropped off

  • Inflation made the problem worse

The carter presidency
The Carter Presidency

  • Intelligent

    • Graduated near the top of his class at the Naval Academy

  • Identified with the common person—Washington outsider

  • Born again Christian

  • Inexperience led to difficulties in working with Congress

  • Struggled throughout his presidency with a poor economy

Economic problems of the 1970s
Economic Problems of the 1970s

  • Reduce unemployment through Keynesian economic policy

  • Appointed Paul Volcker to head the Fed—raised interest rates

  • 1979 fuel shortage

  • Stagflation

  • De-industrialization

  • Declines for labor

  • Tax revolt

Foreign policy a human rights approach
Foreign Policy: A Human Rights Approach

  • Carter used human rights as a basis for his foreign policy

  • He created the State Department Office of Human Rights

  • Economic and military aid was withdrawn from countries that violated human rights

  • Carter spoke out against Soviet policy

    • 1980 Olympic boycott in response to the Soviet invasion of Afghanistan

Camp david accords
Camp David Accords

  • In 1977 Anwar el Sadat visited Israel at the invitation of Menachem Begin

  • Sadat declared the Egypt would recognize Israel

  • Summit at Camp David to facilitate negotiations

    • Developed framework for a peace agreement

    • The talks postponed any decision about the Palestinian people

    • Treaty signed in 1979

  • Major foreign policy achievement of the Carter administration

The hostage crisis
The Hostage Crisis

  • Fundamentalist revolution in Iran led the Shah to leave the country

  • US allowed the Shah to enter the US for cancer treatment

  • A mob took US personnel hostage and ordered the return of the Shah

  • Carter’s responses

    • Economic sanctions

    • Rescue attempt

    • Negotiations

  • Hostages released after Reagan’s inauguration

The century america s time starting over
The Century: America’s Time:Starting Over

  • Consider watching this documentary in preparation for Friday’s test. Here is the link for part one of the film: