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Life in the Early Republic

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Life in the Early Republic

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  1. Life in the Early Republic

  2. An age of realism? • Virtue and vice • Low opinion of human nature  checks and balances

  3. An age of passion • “faction” • Washington the uniter • Jefferson-Hamilton rivalry

  4. Thomas Jefferson (1743-1826) • Lawyer • Inventor • Slaveowner/planter

  5. Jefferson • Author of Declaration of Independence • 1st Secretary of State (under Washington) • 2nd Vice President (under John Adams) • 3rd President

  6. Jefferson’s ideas • Limited government • Anti-urban • Ideal of the yeoman farmer • “Empire of liberty”

  7. Alexander Hamilton (1757?-1804) • Born in Caribbean • Soldier • Lawyer • Economist • 1st Secretary of the Treasury

  8. Hamilton’s ideas • Urban industrial democracy • National bank • National debt • Tariffs

  9. Opposition to Hamilton • Jeffersonians see subsidies and tariffs as gov’t favoritism • The agrarian South opposes tariff

  10. Conservatives aghast at French Revolution • Fear anarchy

  11. Political Parties Emerge • Federalists are pro-British • Democratic-Republicans are pro-French

  12. But wait… • Didn’t the French just save our butts?

  13. Whiskey Rebellion (1794) • Confirms fears of freedom run amok • Farmers in PA resist taxes

  14. The Adams Years (1797-1801) • First truly contested election (1796) • Federalist John Adams wins

  15. The Adams Years • Danger of war with Europe • Federalists want war with France • Alien and Sedition Acts (1798) suppress free speech

  16. Can Freedom Survive Democracy? • Virginia and Kentucky Resolutions (1798-9) • Written secretly by Jefferson and Madison • They call A&S Acts “unconstitutional” • Jefferson wants states to “nullify” laws

  17. Backlash • Helps Jefferson get elected in 1800 • 1st peaceful transfer of power • Jefferson overturns unpopular Federalist policies

  18. Issues of Jefferson’s Presidency • Haitian Revolution • Not a fan

  19. Issues of Jefferson’s Presidency • Judicial review • Marbury vs. Madison (1803)

  20. Issues of Jefferson’s Presidency • Louisiana Purchase (1803) • Constitutional?