MAP AND COMPASS Learning the Basics
Why Would the Boy Scouts Teach the Use of Map and Compass? • Builds Patience and Accurateness • Instills Personal Security • It makes one self-reliant and confident in the outdoors.
TYPES OF COMPASSES • FIXED DIAL and DIGITAL GOOD FOR ZIPPER PULLS. NOT FOR SCOUTING – Not in the Scouts Handbook.
TYPES OF COMPASSES • LENSMATIC, ENGINEERING or MILITARY STYLE. TOO SOPHISTICATED. Save it for High Adventure Scouting.
TYPES OF COMPASSES • ORIENTEERING STYLE - IS JUST RIGHT! • Orienteering style compass was invented in 1933.
MAP AND COMPASS Direction of Travel Arrow Magnifying Glass Dial or Graduation ring Bearing Index Compass needle – Red points North Orienting Arrow and fluorescent dots North-south lines or orienting lines
HOW TO TAKE A BEARING Can anybody tell me what a bearing is? • Now, can anybody tell me how many bearings are on a compass? • NOTE: You will be off about 90 feet per mile for each degree you are off.
WHAT IS A MAP? • A map is a picture of a piece of land as it would look from the air.
WHAT KINDS OF MAPS ARE THERE? • Aerial Photo Maps • Road Maps and Street Maps • Quick Maps that you draw yourself
The most useful maps for hiking are called Topographic Maps. • From the Greek word Topos (place) and Graphein (to draw) • Topographic maps are also called “quadrangle” maps because they enclose a four-sided area.
What information can be learned from a map? Directions. • The top of a map is always north, the bottom south Distance. • The scale of the map will be printed on it. Determine the Lay of the Land. • Map symbols describe terrain, man-made landmarks, and elevation.
ORIENTING THE MAP What does this mean? For a map to be useful, the map must correspond to the lay of the land and the user must have a knowledge of direction and how the map relates to the cardinal directions.
How do you make a map make sense? If you flew over an area, you could look down and see roads, rivers, fields, forests, cities, and towns. On a map, many of those features are represented by symbols.
Symbols Symbols on Topographical maps are always the same. Early map makers (Cartographers) once used their own symbols. Sometimes they would try to disguise their symbols so that you needed to know the code to decipher them.
Symbols Today, cartographers use standard symbols. So if you learn the symbols, you will be able to read and understand any map. The most useful feature on a map is the use of ________. Answer: Color
Here are the colors on a map and what they represent! COMMON MAP SYMBOLS Primary highway Overpass - Underpass Secondary highway Buildings School -- church Light-duty road Woodland Unimproved road Trail Orchard Railroad: single track Scrub Railroad: double track Well water – spring Bridge Rapids Tunnel March (swamp) Falls Footbridge
MAP AND COMPASS Map Problem It’s July. Let’s suppose you’re starting a hike at A and heading for Q. PROBLEM 1. For local information or in case of emergency would you go to B, C, or D? Why? ANSWER 1. C has telephone lines next to it. B is a school and probably closed in summer. D is a cemetery. PROBLEM 2.The Wahootchee River flows NW to SE. To paddle downstream, would it be safer to launch canoes at E or F. Why? ANSWER 2. Launch them at F. The map shows rapids between E and F. PROBLEM 3.Would you cross the river at G or H? Why? ANSWER 3. Use the footbridge at G. H is a railroad bridge. PROBLEM 4. Where would you most likely find firewood – I or U? Why? ANSWER 4. At I. Because I is scrub woods. U is an orchard Problem 5. Which trail would you take – J or K? Why? ANSWER 5. K. J goes through a swamp. PROBLEM 6. Which is the easier way to reach P – Trail L or M? Why? ANSWER 6. The closer contour lines of M show a steeper climb.
MAP AND COMPASS THE SILVA SYSTEM – Easy as 1-2-3 Point the base plate to your destination
MAP AND COMPASS THE SILVA SYSTEM – Easy as 1-2-3 Set Compass Heading
MAP AND COMPASS THE SILVA SYSTEM – Easy as 1-2-3 Follow Your Heading