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The Science of Biology. Chapter 1. I. Introductory Terms. Science: An organized way of using evidence, based on observations, to learn about the natural world. Observations: Information gathered using the senses. 1.Quantitative- involves numbers or measurements

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I. Introductory Terms

  • Science: An organized way of using evidence, based on observations, to learn about the natural world.
  • Observations: Information gathered using the senses.
    • 1.Quantitative- involves numbers or measurements
    • 2. Qualitative-involves characteristics or descriptions not easily measured or counted.

C. Biology: The study of life (living things)

  • D. Organism: a complete individual living thing
    • 1.Examples: spider, tree, etc.

II. Characteristics of living things

  • Living things are Made
  • up of units called cells
    • Cell = basic unit of structure and function in all living things
    • Multicellular = many cells
    • Unicellular = 1 cell (like bacteria)

Living things Reproduce

    • Asexual – 1 parent, no joining of sex cells or DNA
    • Sexual – usually 2 parents, sex cells joined and DNA combined

Living things Grow & develop

    • Cell division
    • Cell enlargement
    • Cell specialization
  • Living things Respond to stimuli

E.Living things Use energy

  • Autotroph: make own food (plants)
  • Heterotroph: eat something
  • Metabolism: chemical reactions that build up or break down materials

Living things Maintain homeostasis

    • Regulation of an organism’s internal environment
    • Optimizes conditions for metabolism

Living things display organization

    • Cell structures, cells, tissues, and organs work together to support the organism
levels of organization
Levels of Organization

Cellular Organization





The cell is the

basic unit of life.

levels of organization1
Levels of Organization

Organismal Level


organ systems



levels of organization2
Levels of Organization

Population Level






Living things evolve over time

    • Adaptation: an inherited characteristic that results from changes to a species over time, usually something that helps them survive

State the problem

    • The problem must specify how the results can be measured
    • Format: What effect does the Independent (manipulated) Variable have on Dependant (responding) Variable?
      • IV: The variable being tested
      • DV: results of experiment, what you will be measuring.

Good or bad example?

    • How does drinking pop affect concentration?
    • Better --> How does drinking mountain dew affect concentration in class?
    • Best --> How does drinking 1 can of mountain dew affect performance on a memory test?

Collect Background Info – research your problem.

  • What things would you research for the mountain dew example?
    • Ex. Amount of caffeine, how caffeine works, how memory works, etc.

Hypothesis = possible solution to problem; an educated guess based on background information

    • Ex: scores on memory tests will be lower after drinking mountain dew

Test the hypothesis (experiment)

    • Controlled experiment– all conditions the same except one variable
    • Experimental group– group exposed to the variable
    • Control group– not exposed to the variable, used as a comparison
    • Number of trials: how many times the experiment is repeated


    • Data – scientific facts collected during experiment
      • Tables, graphs, charts
    • Statistics – math that evaluates data
      • Ex. Average growth rate of frogs during development


    • Theory
      • an explanation of how a specific natural phenomenon occurs
      • tested with repeated experiments and observations and found always to work

Law: a rule that describes, but doesn’t explain, a pattern in nature and predicts what will happen under specific conditions

charles darwin
Charles Darwin

Served as naturalist on mapping expedition around coastal South America.

Used many observations to develop his ideas

Proposed that evolution occurs by

natural selection

darwin s evidence
Darwin’s Evidence

Similarity of related species

- Darwin noticed variations in related species living in different locations

darwin s evidence1
Darwin’s Evidence

- Darwin realized that not all members of a

population survive and reproduce.

natural selection: individuals with superior physical or behavioral characteristics are more likely to survive and reproduce

evolution:modification of a species over generations

post darwin evolution evidence
Post-Darwin Evolution Evidence

Fossil record

Mechanisms of heredity

Comparative anatomy

Molecular evidence