merneptah stele aka the menetaph stele aka israel stele
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Merneptah Stele ( aka the Menetaph Stele, aka Israel Stele). Merneptah Stele. Dated to 1209/1208 BCE Inscription by the Ancient Egyptian king Merneptah (reign:1213 to 1203 BC) Found at Thebes. Merneptah Stele.

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merneptah stele
Merneptah Stele
  • Dated to 1209/1208 BCE
  • Inscription by the Ancient Egyptian king Merneptah (reign:1213 to 1203 BC)
  • Found at Thebes
merneptah stele1
Merneptah Stele
  • “Canaan is captive with all woe. Ashkelon is conquered, Gezer seized, Yanoam made nonexistent; Israel is wasted, bare of seed.”
merneptah stele2
Merneptah Stele
  • The determinative accompanying Gezer, Ashkelon and Yanoam indicate they are city-states.
  • The determinative accompanying Israel indicates it is a foreign people, perhaps a nomadic tribe.
merneptah stele3
Merneptah Stele
  • Scholarly debate about translation for I.si.ri.ar. Some scholars suggest it doesn’t refer to Israel but Jezreel.
  • Only known Egyptian reference to the Israelites
  • Earliest known reference to the Israelites
mesha stele1
Mesha Stele
  • Commemorates the victory of Mesha, a Moabite king, over Omri the king of Israel.
  • Dated to 840 BCE
tel dan stele1
Tel Dan Stele
  • Aramaic inscription
  • King of Damascus, Hazael, commemorates a victory over Israel.
  • The inscription includes the phrase, ‘House of David’.
  • Dated to 9th or 8th century BCE
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